Executive Branch Reform: General Peace Agreement for Mozambique

PROTOCOL III.V:

6. Election of the President of the Republic

(a) The President of the Republic shall be elected by an absolute majority of ballots cast. If no candidate obtains an absolute majority, a second ballot shall be held restricted to the two candidates who have received the highest number of votes;

(b) The second ballot shall take place within one to three weeks after the announcement of the results of the first ballot. Having regard to organizational considerations, the date of the ballot shall be indicated before the commencement of the election campaign;

(c) Individuals 35 years of age and over who are citizens and registered voters shall be eligible to stand for election to the office of President of the Republic;

(d) Candidacies for President of the Republic must have the support of at least 10,000 signatures of Mozambican citizens 18 years of age and over who are currently registered voters.

Implementation History

1992

Minimum Implementation

The General Peace Agreement (GPA) provided for a free election of the executive by a simple majority vote (50 + 1) and if none of the candidates won on the first round, the two with the highest number of votes would participate in a run-off. Presidential and parliamentary elections were scheduled for October 1993.

1993

Minimum Implementation

Presidential and parliamentary elections were scheduled for October 1993, but were delayed due to lags in the schedule for the demobilization of the RENAMO and FRELIMO soldiers. At a news briefing in the Mozambican capital, the United Nations Special Representative for Mozambique, Aldo Ajello, suggested that the country's first multi-party presidential and parliamentary elections should be postponed until mid-1994 due to delays in the demobilization process.1

  • 1. “Mozambique: UN Representative Ajello Proposes Postponement of Elections Until June 1994,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, February 15, 1993.
1994

Full Implementation

The first multiparty elections for the president and the parliament took place from the 27th to the 29th of October, 1994. President Joaquim Chissano received 53.3 percent of the vote, and RENAMO leader Afonso Dhlakama received 33.7 percent of the vote. Chissano's FRELIMO party won 129 seats in the 250-member parliament. Dhlakama's RENAMO took 112 seats. The Democratic Union won the other nine parliamentary seats.2 This was the first multi-party election. The 1994 elections were extensively monitored by observers representing both parties as well as some of the key donors and the UN.

  • 2. “Mozambique: Election Results,” Africa News, November 1, 1994 / November 30, 1994.
1995

Full Implementation

A multi-party election for the executive by simple majority vote took place in October 1994.

No further developments.

1996

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year.

1997

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year.

1998

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year.

1999

Full Implementation

The second multi-party election for the executive by simple majority vote took place from December 3-5, 1999. FRELIMO’s Chissano received 52.29% of the vote and RENAMO’s Dhlakama received 47.71% of the vote.3

2000

Full Implementation

The second multi-party election for the executive by simple majority vote took place in December 1999.

No further developments observed this year.

2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.