Executive Branch Reform: General Agreement on the Establishment of Peace and National Accord in Tajikistan

PROTOCOL ON POLITICAL QUESTIONS (18 MAY 1997)

Article 3:

The reform of the Government shall be carried out by incorporating representatives of the United Tajik Opposition into the structures of the executive branch, including ministries, departments, local government bodies and judicial and law-enforcement bodies on the basis of a quota. The candidates put forward shall be appointed in accordance with a proposal by the United Tajik Opposition following consultations between the President and the Chairman of the Commission on National Reconciliation.

STATUTE OF THE COMMISSION ON NATIONAL RECONCILIATIONS (23 DECEMBER 1996)

III. Functions and Powers of the Commission

7. The Commission shall have the following functions and powers: Reform of the Government - inclusion of representatives of the opposition (UTO) in the structures of executive authority (members of the government), including ministries, departments, local authorities, judicial bodies and law enforcement agencies, taking the regional principle into account.

ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL TO THE PROTOCOL ON THE MAIN FUNCTIONS AND POWERS OF THE COMMISSION ON NATIONAL RECONCILIATION (21 FEBRUARY 1997)

2. Thirty per cent of positions in executive structures, including ministries, departments, local authorities, and judicial bodies and law enforcement agencies, shall be assigned to representatives of UTO, the regional principle being taken into account.

Implementation History

1997

No Implementation

Executive branch reform, as specified in the accord, amounted to a 30 percent quota for UTO leaders. The government reportedly resisted appointing UTO leaders to posts in the executive branch early on.1 

  • 1. Grant R. Smith, “Tajikistan: The Rocky Road to Peace,” Central Asian Survey 18, no. 2 (1999):243-251.
1998

Minimum Implementation

In February 1998 several UTO members were appointed at the cabinet level. On 27 February 1998, Mr. Akbar Turajonzodah, deputy leader of UTO, was appointed First Deputy Prime Minister.2 In October 1998, Zokir Vaziorv was appointed Deputy Prime Minister.3

  • 2. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Tajikistan," United Nations (S/1998/374), May 6, 1999.
  • 3. "Report of the Secretary General on the Situation in Tajikistan," United Nations (S/1998/1029), November 3, 1998.
1999

Minimum Implementation

In May 1999, it was reported that the government had not appointed any of the 13 pending nominees for high-level posts.4 

  • 4. "Report of the Secretary General on the Situation in Tajikistan," United Nations (S/1999/124), February 8, 1999.
2000

Minimum Implementation

No new UTO appointments were made in 2000. It was reported that three prominent UTO members were dismissed from the government in 2000 and 2001.5 

  • 5. Sumie Nakaya, “Aid and Transition From a War Economy to an Oligarchy in Post-war Tajikistan,” Central Asian Survey 28, no. 3 (2009): 259-273.
2001

Minimum Implementation

No new UTO appointments were made in 2001. At least one prominent UTO member was dismissed from the government in 2001.6 

2002

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2003

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2004

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2005

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2006

Minimum Implementation

The last remaining member of the UTO in the executive branch (Emergency Situation Minister Mirzo Zioyev) was dismissed in 2006.7  According to Nakaya (2009), the 30% quota for UTO members in senior government posts was intended to be permanent, was not fully reached, and was dismantled within several years. Similarly, Freedom House reported that "important provisions of the 1997 peace accord remained unimplemented, with demobilization of opposition factions incomplete and the government failing to meet a 30 percent quota for UTO members in senior government posts".8