Electoral/Political Party Reform: Lusaka Protocol

ANNEX 6: AGENDA ITEM II.4: NATIONAL RECONCILIATION

I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES

2. National Reconciliation, today a national imperative, is the expression of the people's will which is translated unequivocally by the political will of the Government of the Republic of
Angola and UNITA to live together within the Angolan constitutional, political and legal framework, reaffirming particularly their respect for the principles of accepting the will of the people expressed through free and fair elections and the right to opposition.

Annex 7: Agenda Item II.5: Completion of the Electoral Process:

I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES

1. As in every democratic and multiparty society, the participation of all citizens in the
definition of the national political, social and economic guidelines and options, as well as in the free choice of the country's leaders, is guaranteed by respect for the principle of the expression of the people's will in periodic, free and fair elections and acceptance of their results.

Implementation History

1994

No Implementation

The Lusaka Accord stipulated that UNITA be allowed to become a legitimate political party with Savimbi at its head, which would be followed by UN monitored presidential elections after all the preconditions for free and fair elections were in place. No election or preparation for an election took place in 1994. In addition, there had been no announcement regarding the legal or constitutional changes needed to make UNITA a legal opposition party.

1995

No Implementation

No election or preparation for an election took place in 1995. In addition, there had been no announcement regarding the legal or constitutional changes needed to make UNITA a legal opposition party.

1996

No Implementation

UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi gave a UNITA radio address on 12 February 1996 in which he called on the President of Angola to legalize UNITA as a party and declare general amnesty. Savimbi suggested that these two actions would lead to future progress on military issues. Savimbi declared: “First, the ban on UNITA should be lifted because [words indistinct] UNITA deputies. So this ban should be lifted. Second, the President of the Republic should declare a general and total amnesty because I am not sure whether the men we have confined will be tried in future. These two actions will open the political door that speeds up the military phase. We made the gesture. People have to understand, to present 16,500 men and 16,500 weapons without any reciprocity, it is as if UNITA was surrendering.”1 

No announcement regarding the legal or constitutional changes needed to make UNITA a legal opposition party took place this year. “On 1 October, UNITA submitted proposals for the special status of Mr. Savimbi as the President of the largest opposition party” (UNAVEM III, S/1996/827). No preparation for an election took place this year.2

  • 1. “UNITA Leader Says President Should Reciprocate UNITA's 'Goodwill',” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, February 13, 1996.
  • 2. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III),” U.N. Security Council (S/1996/827) October 4, 1996.

No Implementation

There was no announcement regarding the legal or constitutional changes needed to make UNITA a legal opposition party this year. No electoral preparations took place.

1998

Full Implementation

Over three years following the Lusaka Accord, the Angolan government announced that UNITA was a fully legal political party -- with Savimbi at the head of the party.3

Later in November, the National Assembly voted to repeal Mr. Savimbi’s position as the legal head of UNITA, by removing his official status and office that was granted to him in March. “On 27 October 1998, by a decision adopted by 115 votes in favor, none against and 61 abstentions, the National Assembly abrogated the law granting a special status to Mr. Savimbi as the leader of the largest opposition political party, which was promulgated in accordance with the Lusaka Protocol. This decision was attributed to Mr. Savimbi's failure to fulfill his party's obligations under the Protocol.”4

In the last issuance of 1998, MONUA reported that the Angolan government and UNITA forces had continued to perform extensive military operations and that MONUA personnel, under phase IV of their security plan, would be withdrawn from all provinces.5

The Uppsala Conflict Data Program coded the conflict between the Angolan government and UNITA as reaching the threshold of “war” in 1998 with over 1000 total deaths in the year. Coding for this case stops December 31, 1998.

  • 3. “Angola Peace Monitor,” Africa News 4, no. 7, (March 1998).
  • 4. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA),” U.N. Security Council (S/1998/1110), November 23, 1998.
  • 5. Ibid.