Electoral/Political Party Reform: Luena Memorandum of Understanding

CHAPTER 1: SUBJECT AND PRINCIPLES OF THE MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING

1 -- SUBJECT

1.2. The objective of the Memorandum of Understanding is collaboration between the parties for the resolution of negative military factors posing an obstacle to the Lusaka Protocol, and the creation of conditions for its definitive conclusion.

2 -- FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

2.2. The parties reiterate their unequivocal acceptance of the validity of pertinent political-juridical instruments, namely the Lusaka Protocol and UN Security Council resolutions related to the Angolan peace process.

LUSAKA PROTOCOL

ANNEX 6: AGENDA ITEM II.4: NATIONAL RECONCILIATION: I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES

2. National Reconciliation, today a national imperative, is the expression of the people's will which is translated unequivocally by the political will of the Government of the Republic of Angola and UNITA to live together within the Angolan constitutional, political and legal framework, reaffirming particularly their respect for the principles of accepting the will of the people expressed through free and fair elections and the right to opposition.

4. National Reconciliation implies: (c) That, in the pursuit of national interest, UNITA members participate adequately at all levels and in the various institutions of political, administrative and economic activity.  

Annex 7: Agenda Item II.5: Completion of the Electoral Process: I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES

1. As in every democratic and multiparty society, the participation of all citizens in the definition of the national political, social and economic guidelines and options, as well as in the free choice of the country's leaders, is guaranteed by respect for the principle of the expression of the people's will in periodic, free and fair elections and acceptance of their results.

2. The Angolan electoral process, initiated with the election s provided for in the "Acordos de Paz para Angola " (Bicesse) remains to be concluded because of the postelectoral crisis. Under the terms of article 147 (3) of Law 5/92 of 16 April 1992, the electoral process should be concluded with the holding of the second round of the presidential elections.

Implementation History

2002

Intermediate Implementation

The 2002 Luena Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) calls for continuing and completing the implementation of the 1994 Lusaka Protocol. The Lusaka Accord stipulated that UNITA be allowed to become a legitimate political party to compete in national multi-party elections. In 1998, three years following the Lusaka Accord, the Angolan government announced that UNITA was a fully legalized political party. UNITA would remain a legal political party, although multi-party elections would not be held for several years.1

  • 1. “Angola Peace Monitor,” Africa News 4, no. 7 (March 1998).
2003

Intermediate Implementation

UNITA remained a legal political party this year; multi-party elections would not be held. 

2004

Intermediate Implementation

UNITA remained a legal political party this year; multi-party elections would not be held.

2005

Intermediate Implementation

UNITA remained a legal political party this year; multi-party elections would not be held.

2006

Intermediate Implementation

UNITA remained a legal political party this year; multi-party elections would not be held.

2007

Intermediate Implementation

UNITA remained a legal political party this year; multi-party elections would not be held.

2008

Full Implementation

On 5 September 2008, Angola held national multi-party parliamentary elections for the first time in 16 years. The MPLA won over 80 percent of the seats, with UNITA coming in second with 10 percent.2

  • 2. “Angola to Hold First Election in 16 Years,” Deutsche Presse-Agentur, September 5, 2008.
2009

Full Implementation

The stipulation that national elections be held and UNITA be allowed to compete was fulfilled in 2008.

2010

Full Implementation

The stipulation that national elections be held and UNITA be allowed to compete was fulfilled in 2008.

2011

Full Implementation

The stipulation that national elections be held and UNITA be allowed to compete was fulfilled in 2008.