Electoral/Political Party Reform: General Agreement on the Establishment of Peace and National Accord in Tajikistan

Protocol on Political Questions (18 May 1997)

Article 2: The Central Electoral Commission on Elections and the Holding of a Referendum shall be established for a transitional period with the inclusion in its membership of 25 per cent of the representatives of the United Tajik Opposition and shall conduct the elections and referendum before the beginning of the work of the new professional Parliament and the establishment of the new Central Electoral Commission of the Republic of Tajikistan.

Statute of the Commission on National Reconciliations (23 December 1996)

III. Functions and Powers of the Commission:

7. The Commission shall have the following functions and powers: Developing proposals for amending the legislation on the functioning of political parties and movements and the mass media. Preparation and submission for approval by Parliament, and if necessary also by a nationwide referendum, of a new law on elections to parliament and the local representative bodies; Establishment for the transition period of a Central Electoral Commission on the Elections and the Conduct of the Referendum; Submission for consideration by Parliament of proposals regarding the date for the holding of elections to a new professional Parliament, to be monitored by the United Nations and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), with the participation of the observer countries at the inter-Tajik talks.

Implementation History

1997

Minimum Implementation

The GA mentioned three electoral reforms: 1) lifting the ban on UTO political parties, 2) the creation of a new upper-house of Parliament and 3) nationwide elections to the new Parliament. In 1997 the CNR debated these changes to the constitution.1 

  • 1. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Tajikistan," United Nations (S/1997/859), November 5, 1997.
1998

Minimum Implementation

The ban on religious parties was not lifted in 1998 and no elections were held. The CNR continued to debate these changes to the constitution.2 

  • 2. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Tajikistan," United Nations (S/1998/1029), November 3, 1998.
1999

Intermediate Implementation

The electoral reforms specified in the accord were fully implemented (de jure). In August 1999, the Supreme Court lifted the ban on UTO member parties that had been in effect since 1993.3  In June 1999, Tajikistan's parliament, the Majlisi Oli, adopted the amendments to the constitution prepared by the CNR.4 In September 1999, the constitutional amendments were adopted through a public referendum and passed with 72 percent of the vote.5 

  • 3. Rashid Abdullo,  (2001). "Implementation of the 1997 General Agreement: Success, Dilemmas, and Challenges," in Politics of Compromise: the Tajikistan Peace Process, eds. K. Abdullaev and C. Barnes (London: Conciliation Resources, 2001), Accord 10: 48–53.
  • 4. Rahmatillo Zoir and Scott Newton, "Constitutional and Legislative Reform," in Politics of Compromise: the Tajikistan Peace Process, eds. K. Abdullaev and C. Barnes, (London: Conciliation Resources, 2001), Accord 10:54-59.
  • 5. "Chronology," in Politics of Compromise: the Tajikistan Peace Process, eds. K. Abdullaev and C. Barnes (London: Conciliation Resources, 2001), Accord 10: 82-87.
2000

Full Implementation

In February and March of 2000 parliamentary elections were held on a multi-party basis for the first time in Tajikistan, although they were highly irregular. The number of ballots cast equaled 93 percent of the population and 68 percent of precincts had allowed proxy voting. The president’s party won 33 seats and the Islamic Revival party won 2 seats.6 

  • 6. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Tajikistan," United Nations (S/2000/214), March 14, 2000.
2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.  

2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.  

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.  

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.  

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.  

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.