Electoral/Political Party Reform: Bougainville Peace Agreement

BPA (B)(4):

28. The Bougainville Constitution will provide that the institutions of the autonomous Bougainville Government will include a legislature which shall be a mainly elected body, but may also include members appointed or elected to represent special interests, such as women, youth, churches.

Implementation History

2001

No Implementation

The peace agreement’s electoral/political party reform provision relates to the Legislative body of the Government of Bougainville. Since the Constitution of Autonomous Bougainville was still under discussion, this provision was not implemented in 2001.  

2002

No Implementation

The peace agreement’s electoral/political party reform provision relates to the Legislative body of the Government of Bougainville. Since the Constitution of Autonomous Bougainville was still under discussion, this provision was not implemented in 2002.  

2003

Minimum Implementation

On September 3, 2002, Bougainville Governor, John Momis, officially announced the appointment of the Bougainville Constitutional Commission (BCC).1 The new Constitution would have a provision on electoral and political party reform.  

  • 1. "Papua New Guinea: Bougainville Constitutional Commission announced," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, September 3, 2002.
2004

Intermediate Implementation

On 14 January 2004, the National Government handed over the Constitution to the Autonomous Bougainville Government in Arawa.2 In Schedule 10 of the Autonomous Bougainville’s Constitution, a clear provision has been made on holding the first general elections (in 2005).

According to the 2001 peace agreement, “agreed plans for weapons disposal will be fully implemented before elections for the autonomous Bougainville Government are held” (Article 324, 2001 Bougainville Peace Agreement). The peace agreement also requires that the political parties to be fully satisfied with the compliance by the parties in the handing in of weapons and whether the level of security of the weapons makes it conducive to holding the elections. As required by the peace agreement, however, a major obstacle to the successful conclusion of the peace process remained the issue of weapon collection. 

  • 2. "Papua New Guinea government hands over Bougainville constitution," BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific, January 17, 2005.
2005

Full Implementation

Francis Ona and his Me'ekamui Defence Force (MDF) did not join the weapons collection process. The weapons disposal compliance was finally completed in 2005.

The first elections for the Autonomous Region of Bougainville were held from May 20 through June 2. They were deemed fair and transparent by the International Observer Team.3 In a press release on June 15, 2005, the President of the Security Council “congratulated the Autonomous Bougainville Government and the people of Bougainville on this achievement and took note that those internationally observed elections, which reflect the expressed will of the people of Bougainville, mark a significant and historical landmark in the Bougainville peace process” (Press Release SC/8411, June 15, 2005).

The first general election for the Autonomous Region of Bougainville used a ‘First-Past-the-Post’ voting system as stipulated in Section 109(a) of the Constitution. All subsequent elections of the President and members of the House of Representatives will be held under a preferential voting system as set out in section 109(b). In the election, Joseph Kabui was elected Bougainville's first president.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.