Electoral/Political Party Reform: Agreement for the Reform and Civil Concord

Article 12: On the Multiparty System.

a) The two Parties agree that at the expiry, on 3 September, 2002, of the period of implementation of the issue of a referendum concerning the limitation to four political parties, article 6 of the Constitution of September 1992 will ipso facto come into force.

b) However, the FRUD-Army signatory of the Agreement will be tolerated as a political party to carry on partisan activities.

Article 16:

The control of electoral operations on the national level is ensured by a national independent electoral committee.

A decree will determine its functioning and its composition.

Implementation History

2001

No Implementation

The signatories agreed that the legal limitation of allowing only four political parties would be set to automatically expire in 2001.  

2002

Full Implementation

On September 30, 2002, Djibouti government issued a decree (No. 2002-0198/PR/MID) related to the amendment on the composition and functioning of the Independent National Electoral Commission. The decree had the following provisions:

Article 3: The Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), in the District of Djibouti, is composed of: Three (3) members appointed by the Government; Three (3) members appointed by the President of the National Assembly taking into account its political configuration; Three (3) judges elected in general assembly of judges; Are not eligible members of the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Council [sic]; Three representatives from civil society. A person appointed by each political party duly constituted each institution chooses or elects one member and one alternate, up to the quota allocated to it.

In September 2002, “President Ismail Omar Guelleh announced the introduction of a full multiparty political system”. The 1992 constitution restricted the number of political parties to four. According to a new provision, all “parties would be recognised, subject to approval by the Interior Ministry.”1

Following the introduction of a multiparty system in September, the Union for Democracy and Justice, led by Ismail Guedi Hared, was registered by the Interior Ministry on October 22, 2002.2

The legislative elections were to be held in December 2002, but postponed until January 10, 2003 to allow newly registered political parties time to organize. In a statement the Interior Minister (on November 14, 2002) reported the approval of the creation of the People's Social Democratic Party (PPSD), led by a former foreign minister and former secretary general of the ruling Popular Rally for Progress (RPP) Moumin Bahdon Farah, and the Djibouti Development Party (PDD), led by the former director of the Ministry of Finance, Mohammed Daoud Chechem.3

  • 1. "Djibouti," Keesing's Record of World Events (Volume 48), September 2002, 44971.
  • 2. Ibid., 45028.
  • 3. Ibid., 45076.
2003

Full Implementation

Further political party reforms took place in 2002. Multiparty legislative elections were held on 10 January 2003. Ahmed Dini from FRUD-AD led the opposition coalition, while FRUD, which had signed the peace agreement in 1994 was a part of the Union for a Presidential Majority coalition.4

  • 4. "Djibouti," Keesing's Record of World Events (Volume 49), January 2003, 45174.
2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.