Electoral/Political Party Reform: Agreement on Ending Hostilities in the Republic of Congo

AGREEMENT ON ENDING HOSTILITIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF CONGO

(29 DECEMBER 1999)

Chapter II: The Monitoring Comission for the Agreements on Cease-Fire and End of Hostilities

Article 2: The signatories of this agreement agree to the establishment of a mixed and equal Monitoring Commission for the Agreement on Ceasefire and Ending Hostilities, responsible for:

Ensuring the demilitarisation of political parties, movements, and associations.

Implementation History

2000

Full Implementation

The Accords signed in November and December of 1999 required the demilitarization of political parties. Major combatant groups such as Ninjas, Cobras, and Cocoyes were affiliated with the Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development (MCDDI) headed by former Prime Minister Kolelas, the Congolese Labor Party (PCT) headed by Sassou-Nguesso, and the Pan-African Union for Social Democracy (UPADS) headed by former President Lissouba. According to Themner (2011), after a 1997 law banned the militia groups, the Republic of Congo government started to forcefully disarm militia groups. This initiative, however, was not very successful and the violence recurred in 1999. Once parties reached a settlement after signing two accords (one in November 1999 and one in December 1999), militia groups had formally been dissolved.1 There were splinter factions active until 2003, but political parties were demilitarized.

Notwithstanding occasional confrontation between the governing party and the opposition parties, political parties were allowed to function normally. Nevertheless, the governing party and its allies had dominance in the process.

  • 1. Anders Themner, Violence in Post-Conflict Societies: Remarginalization, Remobilization and Relationships, (London: Routledge, 2011).
2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.