Education Reform: Ohrid Agreement

6.1. With respect to primary and secondary education, instruction will be provided in the students' native languages, while at the same time uniform standards for academic programs will be applied throughout Macedonia.

6.2. State funding will be provided for university level education in languages spoken by at least 20 percent of the population of Macedonia, on the basis of specific agreements.

6.3. The principle of positive discrimination will be applied in the enrolment in State universities of candidates belonging to communities not in the majority in the population of Macedonia until the enrolment reflects equitably the composition of the population of Macedonia.

Implementation History

2001

No Implementation

Following the approval of the constitutional changes by the parliament in November 2001, the issue of Albanian-language higher education remained unresolved. The issue was related to the legalization of Tetovo University, which was an Albanian language higher education institution.1

  • 1. "Macedonia: rector calls for legalization of ethnic Albanian Tetovo University," BBC Monitoring Europe, November 21, 2001.
2002

No Implementation

Issues related to legality of the Albanian language higher education remained unresolved. It remained a contentious issue. 

2003

Full Implementation

On 17 July 2003, government changed the education law and allowed the ethnic-Albanian Tetovo University to operate on a legal basis. “The move is a decisive step towards ending a standoff that has become one of the most divisive issues in Macedonian politics. Education has been the source of significant tension between the ethnic-Macedonian majority and the country's 30% Albanian minority, which currently forms only 3% of the student population at the two official universities of Skopje and Bitola. The recognition of Tetovo University was a key demand in the 2001 clashes between ethnic Albanian rebel forces and the Macedonian government.”2 According to the law, “the Albanian language is raised to the level of official use in the institutions of higher education, and will at the same time enjoy the right to funds from the state budget in the same way as the University of Shkup Skopje and that of Manastir Bitola.”3

  • 2. "Macedonia Moves to Legalize Ethnic-Albanian University," World Markets Analysis, July 1, 2003.
  • 3. "Macedonia's Tetovo University receives state funding under new law," BBC Monitoring Europe, July 19, 2003.
2004

Full Implementation

Education reform took place in 2004 that met the ethnic Albanian demands.  

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.