Economic and Social Development: National Pact

TITLE IV ON THE CONSOLIDATION OF SOLIDARITY AND NATIONAL UNITY IN THE NORTH OF MALI

SUB-TITLE A MEASURES TO CONSOLIDATE NATIONAL SOLIDARITY

44. As mentioned in paragraph 11 title II, the reinsertion of displaced populations and assistance to victims of all the consequences of the armed conflict in the North of Mali, will give rise to the creation of two Funds:

-a Fund for development and reinsertion,
-a Fund for assistance and compensation to victims of all the consequences of the armed conflict.

45. These two funds will be created and funded within thirty days of signature of the Pact, and will remain active for a full year. They will be managed by a bilateral commission including representatives of the Government and the Movements.

46. In order to succeed with the running of these funds, the two parties will launch a joint appeal to the generosity of the Malian Nation and an appeal for humanitarian and financial assistance to the international community.

47. A special development programme for the North of Mali will be approved for a period of ten years, and launched with two successive five-year funding tranches.

48. The purpose of this programme will be to redress the economic, social and cultural inequalities between the North of Mali and the rest of the country. It will have the further goal of improving the infrastructure in the North of Mali, in order to render the Region more attractive to investors.

49. The special development programme will be designed, and its financing planned, within six months of signature of the present Pact. The Regional and inter-regional Assemblies will make submissions to the Government on this subject.

50. The special development programme will be approved by the Government. The resources allocated will be announced as five-year amounts. These credits will be allocated in annual tranches to each of the Regional Assemblies, which will be responsible for management and execution of the programme.

51. A preferential fiscal regime will be created for the North of Mali. This will be designed so as to encourage and attract investment. It will be announced within three months of the signing of this Pact, and will remain in place for a period of ten years.

Implementation History

1992

Minimum Implementation

The 1992 National pact called for increased autonomy and development assistance for the north. Though more information on the central government’s involvement in the socio-economic development is not available, the North of Mali was granted a special decentralization status in the country’s constitution. This could be considered an effort to further the development programs provided for in the peace agreement. However, the government was constrained due to the structural reform program. 

1993

Minimum Implementation

The decentralization mission was created in 1993. But the local elections were not held in that year. Nevertheless, the Election Commissioner for development, Manuel Marin, appealed to the government to carry out more development projects for the Tuareg populations of Northern Mali.1

  • 1. "MALI: EC PLEDGES ADDITIONAL STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT SUPPORT," IPS-Inter Press Service, June 3, 1993.
1994

Minimum Implementation

Information is not available on development programs. In 1994, an outbreak of violence in northern Mali might have affected development programs. 

1995

Minimum Implementation

In 1995, Mali championed the women’s literacy program. The program was funded by organizations such as UNESCO and the UN Development Program. The literacy program in the north faced greater challenges, but the UN Children's Fund and other organizations had considerable success with women's literacy programs.2 In July, local government authorities returned to northern Mali. As peace became more prevalent and the area more stable in 1995, development programs began to be implemented for the benefit of northern Mali.3 The promised $200 million donor support for the economic development program in northern Mali was not realized in 1995. Nevertheless, the Timbuktuans were restoring tourism infrastructure.4

  • 2. "Mali: championing women's literacy programs," African Farmer, May 1995.
  • 3. "MALI; Ceremony marks return of local government to northern districts," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, July 31, 1995.
  • 4. "Mali Tuareg War Ends As Foes Burn Weapons," Africa News, April, 1996.
1996

Full Implementation

Hundreds of reintegration programs designed to reintegrate ex-combatants were supported by the UNDP trust fund. At the same time, 27 different donor and development agencies were involved in different development programs worth more than $200 million.5 These donor agencies along with the government of Mali were involved in various development projects related to agriculture, livestock, water, energy, health, education, and infrastructure buildings (roads etc.).

  • 5. Robin-Edward Poulton and Ibrahim ag Youssouf, A Peace in Timbuktu: Democratic Governance, Development and African Peacemaking (United Nations Publication, 1998), 293-4.
1997

Full Implementation

During this year donor agencies and the government of Mali provided support for the development programs in northern Mali. By 1996, most of the decentralization infrastructures were in place and the local government units had authority to collect taxes and make decisions on issues related to local development. 

1998

Full Implementation

Economic and social development related provisions were implemented. 

1999

Full Implementation

Economic and social development related provisions were implemented. 

2000

Full Implementation

Economic and social development related provisions were implemented. 

2001

Full Implementation

Economic and social development related provisions were implemented.