Donor Support: National Pact

TITLE V SUB-REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN THE SERVICE OF PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT

60. The Republic of Mali commits itself furthermore to request actively the support of relevant international Organisations (UNDP, IFAD, WFP, UNESCO, ADB, IDB ...) to help redress the economic, social and cultural disadvantage of the North of Mali.

61. Finally the Republic of Mali will request friendly countries to join it within a framework of intergovernmental cooperation, to train or retrain young people from the displaced populations of Northern Mali who have not had the opportunity to receive training, or who have been obliged to interrupt it, or who have received training abroad.

Implementation History

1992

Minimum Implementation

After the fall of the dictatorship, Mali did not have any available resources to support the peace process. While donors such as the United States, Germany, Italy, Belgium and the World Food Program set up a development fund jointly controlled by donors and the Mali government, the government did not get support from donor agencies to set up a sub-division of ceasefire commissions. Algeria remained supportive and provided some vehicle and fuel support to the Ceasefire Commission.1

  • 1. Robin-Edward Poulton and Ibrahim ag Youssouf, A Peace in Timbuktu: Democratic Governance, Development and African Peacemaking (United Nations Publication, 1998), 65.
1993

Minimum Implementation

There was not any donor support for the peace process in 1993. However, the UNHCR and other donor agencies supported programs to repatriate refugees. 

1994

Minimum Implementation

There was not any donor support for the peace process in 1994. However, the UNHCR and other donor agencies supported programs to repatriate refugees. 

1995

Minimum Implementation

Once peacemaking initiatives through civilian participation began in 1995, donor agencies started to show some interest in supporting the peace process. With this in mind, the government of Mali held a two-day meeting with donor agencies in northern Mali in July 1995. Donor agencies promised $200 million development aid to northern Mali.2 A number of recommendations were made during this meeting, and many focused on the rehabilitation of those displaced during the conflict and land issues. In the meeting, donors and development partners allegedly acted expeditiously on the funding requirement under the emergency resettlement program, and thus released the funds available.3 But for the cantonment process, donor agencies did not provide support because they were suspicious of the government’s intentions.4 However, the UNHCR did provide support for the repartition of refugees. 

  • 2. "Mali Tuareg War Ends As Foes Burn Weapons," Africa News, April, 1996.
  • 3. "MALI; Government-donors Timbuktu meeting issues recommendations," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, July 20, 1995.
  • 4. Robin-Edward Poulton and Ibrahim ag Youssouf, A Peace in Timbuktu.
1996

Full Implementation

After cantoning the Tuareg combatants, donor agencies were interested in providing support for the peace process. The demobilization process was financed by the UN Trust Fund. Those 3,000 ex-combatants who surrendered their arms received a $200 premium and the 7,000 more ex-combatants who were identified later and did not go through the cantonment process received $100.5 Programs to reintegrate ex-combatants were carried out by the UNDP. The Support Program for the Socio-Economic Reintegration of Ex-combatants in Northern Mali (PAREM) was created and funded by the UNDP’s trust fund. In May 1996, 6,000 ex-combatants who did not go through the cantonment process participated in the PAREM programs. In 1997, this number increased to 7,795 with the participation of an additional 1,659 cantoned ex-combatants who were not taken into the army or civil administration. A total of 866 projects were funded benefiting 9,509 ex-combatants. As a pre-condition for the initial funding for a program, each registered ex-combatant was required to develop a viable project.6 27 different donor and development agencies were involved in different development programs worth more than $200 million/7 Donor agencies also contributed to the repartition and rehabilitation of the refugees. 

  • 5. Ibid., 116-118.
  • 6. Ibid., 123-132.
  • 7. Ibid.,  293-4.
1997

Full Implementation

Donor agencies provided support for the rehabilitation of ex-combatants and refugees in 1996. 

1998

Full Implementation

Donor support provision was implemented  by 1996.

1999

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2000

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.