Dispute Resolution Committee: General Peace Agreement for Mozambique

Protocol IV.VI(i)

2. Cease-fire Commission

(a) On E-Day, the cease-fire Commission (CCF) shall be established and begin its functions under the direct supervision of CSC;

(b) CCF shall be composed of representatives of the Government, RENAMO, the invited countries and the United Nations. CCF shall be presided over by the United Nations;

(c) CCF shall be based in Maputo and shall be structured as follows:

- Regional offices (North, Centre and South);

- Offices at the assembly and billeting locations of the two Parties.

(d) CCF shall have, inter alia, the function of implementing the demobilisation process, with the following tasks:

- Planning and organization;

- Regulation of procedures;

- Direction and supervision;

- Registration of troops to be demobilised and issue of the respective identity cards;

- Collection, registration and custody of weapons, ammunition, explosives, equipment, uniforms and documentation; destroying or deciding on the other disposition of weapons, ammunition, explosives, equipment, uniforms and documentation as agreed by the Parties;

- Medical examinations;

- Issue of demobilisation certificates.

(e) The United Nations shall assist in the implementation, verification and monitoring of the entire demobilisation process.

Protocol V.II. Commission to supervise the cease-fire and monitor respect for and implementation of the agreements between the Parties within the framework of these negotiations: its composition and powers:

1. Pursuant to Protocol I, the Supervisory and Monitoring Commission (CSC) is established, which shall begin operating upon appointment of its Chairman by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

2. This Commission shall be composed of representatives of the Government, RENAMO, the United Nations, OAU and the countries to be agreed upon by the Parties. The Commission shall be chaired by the United Nations and shall be based at Maputo.

3. The decisions of CSC shall be taken by consensus between the two Parties

4. CSC shall draw up its own Rules of Procedure and may whenever it sees fit establish sub-commissions additional to those provided for in paragraph II.7 of the present Protocol.

5. CSC shall in particular:

(a) Guarantee the implementation of the provisions contained in the General Peace Agreement;

(b) Guarantee respect for the timetable specified for the ceasefire and the holding of the elections;

(c) Assume responsibility for the authentic interpretation of the agreements;

(d) Settle any disputes that may arise between the Parties;

(e) Guide and co-ordinate the activities of the subsidiary commissions referred to in paragraph II.7 of this Protocol.

6. CSC shall cease to function when the new Government takes office.

7. CSC shall have under it the following Commissions:

(a) The Joint Commission for the Formation of the Mozambican Defence Force (CCFADM) Its powers shall be those specified in Protocol IV, paragraph I (iii) on the formation of the Mozambican Defence Force. CCFADM shall be composed of representatives of the Parties and of the Governments selected by the Parties before the signing of the General Peace Agreement to provide assistance in the process of formation of the FADM in conformity with the provisions of Protocol IV, section I;

(b) The ceasefire Commission (CCF) Its composition and powers shall be those indicated in Protocol IV, section VI and Protocol VI, section I;

(c) Reintegration Commission (CORE) Its composition and powers shall be those specified in Protocol IV, section VI.

Implementation History

1992

Full Implementation

The Supervisory and Monitoring Commission (CSC) was appointed on 4 November 1992 to guarantee the implementation of and assume responsibility for authentic interpretation of the Agreement, settle any disputes between the parties that might arise, and guide and coordinate the activities of the other Commissions. The United Nations led the CSC with Government and RENAMO delegations, and representatives of Italy, France, Portugal, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Organization of African Unity (OAU). The first meeting of the CSC was held on 4 November 1992, where the Ceasefire Commission (CCF), the Commission for the Reintegration of Demobilized Military Personnel (CORE), and the Joint Commission for the Formation of the Mozambican Defence Forces (CCFADM) were established.1

The Supervision and Control Commission (CSC) met in Maputo on 25 November 1992 to discuss rules for its investigation teams should cease-fire violations occur. “Speaking to the media shortly after the meeting, Lt-Col Sinha, commander of the UN forces in Mozambique, said those rules have come into force on an interim basis. The definitive rules had still to be approved by the UN. The meeting also looked into Mozambique government and MNR [MNR] reports of violations of the Rome Peace Accords. It also drew up a plan for trips to areas where such violations are said to have occurred, so that they can be investigated” (BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 1992).2

1993

Full Implementation

The Supervision and Control Commission (CSC) held a meeting on 22 January 1993 in order to discuss UN proposals concerning the confinement of government and Mozambique National Resistance [MNR - RENAMO] troops. In the meeting, the United Nations proposed that the 12 assembly points already identified should be occupied as soon as possible. The Mozambican government had already approved the proposal, though RENAMO still had to make a final decision on the matter. RENAMO believed that the accommodation of troops should begin simultaneously only after the 49 assembly points provided for in the accord had been identified.

The CSC also discussed regulations governing the various commissions and the replacement of the Humanitarian Assistance Committee. The UN Operations Team on Emergency and Humanitarian Assistance in Mozambique would replace that committee.3

Territory under RENAMO control was administered by RENAMO members. On 15 March 1993, the Mozambique National Resistance (MNR) announced in a communique issued in Maputo that it would not participate in any of the peace agreement committees until the government resolved all the administrative problems of the MNR in Maputo, challenging recent statements about government expenditure on the MNR administration in Maputo made by the Minister of Construction and Water Joao Salomao.4

The CSE meeting was convened by Mr. Aldo Ajello, Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General and Chairman of the CSE, on Saturday March 6, 1993. The meeting was called to examine the report from the Chairman of the Cease-Fire Commission on an alleged cease-fire violation that the Mozambican government had reported. The Mozambique National Resistance (MNR) did not attend the meeting, which was deplored by the Commission chair.5

For three months, the CSE did not operate. The proceedings of the CSE resumed on June 3, 1993. The Mozambican government team was led by Mineral Resources Minister John Kachamila; Raul Domingos led the Mozambique National Resistance team to the CSC.6

  • 3. “Other Southern African Reports; Mozambique: Commission Proposes Immediate Occupation of Assembly Points,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, January 25, 1993.
  • 4. “Mozambique: MNR Stops Participation in Peace Committees until Problems Resolved,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts/The Monitoring Report (ME/1636 B/8), March 16, 1993.
  • 5. “Mozambique: UN Explains and 'Deplores' MNR’s Absence from Meeting,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, March 10, 1993.
  • 6. “Mozambique: Peace Accord Commission Resumes Work,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts/The Monitoring Report, June 4, 1993.
1994

Full Implementation

With the successful holding of elections in October 1994 and the departure of the UN Mission in Mozambique, the Supervision and Control Commission completed its task of monitoring the peace process and resolving any differences that arose during the peace process.

1995

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1996

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1997

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1998

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1999

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2000

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.