Dispute Resolution Committee: Agreement Between the Republic Niger Government and the ORA

1995 PEACE AGREEMENT

Section III. Restoration of Peace and National Reconciliation 

Clause 12

With a view to the establishment of permanent security, of the restoration and consolidation of peace, the two Parties decide to create and to establish in Niamey, within two weeks following the signing of this present Agreement, a Special Peace Committee composed of the two Parties, with both sides equally represented, and of the mediation. The total number of members of this group cannot exceed 20, whereof 14 for the two Parties. The Presidency of the Special Peace Committee will be entrusted to the High Commissioner at the Restoration of Peace and the Vice-presidency will be entrusted to a representative of the ORA. Necessary means for the activity of the Committee will be taken care of by the State.

The Committee will meet periodically. It could also be convened by its President on demand of one or the other of the Parties. At the meetings of the Committee, minutes will be taken.

The Committee will have as its mission:

1. to supervise the application of the Agreement and the timetable established by it.
2. to ensure that the stipulations of the Agreement are widely spread and that there is a
campaign of explanation of it among the Nigerien population.
3. to supervise the execution of the disarmament operations and the recuperation of all arms, munitions and war material.
4. to determine the number of people before starting the integration work.

Implementation History

1995

Full Implementation

As agreed in the peace agreement, the Special Peace Committee (SPC) was formed with representatives from the government and ORA. The SPC began its deliberation in Niamey under the chairmanship of Mai Meigana, the high commissioner for peace restoration, and in the presence of the representatives of mediating countries, the Armed Resistance Organization [ORA] and the government. The committee's main role was to see to the implementation of the peace accord signed in Niamey on 15th April and the schedule it drew up. According to Mr. Meigana, the committee's role is essential in completing the peace process.1

The SPC was instrumental in resolving disputes related to the implementation of the peace agreement. The peace process was stalled for some time after the clashes between the ORA and the Niger armed force on 22 November 1995, but a three-day extraordinary session of the SPC began in Niamey on 3 December 1995. In the session, participants focused on the only topic on the agenda, which was the Akokou phonetic incidents and on how to safeguard the positive results of the peace process.2 As such, the committee was working towards resolving the disputes.

  • 1. "Niger: Niger-Tuareg Special Peace Committee begins meeting," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, May 25, 1995.
  • 2. "Niger; Government and rebel group issue communiqué on continuing peace talks," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, December 10, 1995.
1996

Full Implementation

The SPC was operational. Political instability ensued in Niger after the February 1996 Military coup; no information is available on disputes related to the implementation of the peace agreement as well as the work of the SPC. 

1997

Full Implementation

The president received the rebel leader Rhissa Boula, and the rebel leader spoke on the purpose of his meeting with the head of the state. The leader mentioned a number of complaints against the implementation of the peace process. He said the purpose of the contact with the authorities was to give a new lease of life to the peace process. At the end of the day, it was stated that the president and the rebel leader reached a common ground and decided to continue their work with the technical committee which was in charge of the peace process.3

  • 3. BBC Monitoring Service: Africa, January 8, 1997.
1998

Full Implementation

The monitoring and implementation committee, as established by the April 1995 peace agreement as well as the 1997 protocol agreement with the UARF, held its fourth meeting on 22 April 1998. The meeting, chaired by the prime minister, was attended by members of the government and leaders of the former rebels. According to the prime minister, the meeting was in line with the process set in motion after the 24 April 1995 agreement was concluded. In the meeting, Prime Minister Ibrahim Hassane Maiyaki remarked that a lot of efforts had been made by both the government and the former rebels to strengthen peace and confidence among brothers. He also reported that the encampment and integration exercise went on satisfactorily. Disarmament was officially celebrated on 28 October last year (1997) at Tchin-Tabaradene. 4

  • 4. "Niger: Peace accord committee meeting opens in Niamey," BBC Monitoring Africa – Political, April 24, 1998.
1999

Full Implementation

A military coup took place on 9 April 1999 in Niger. The President, Ibrahim Bare Mainassara, was shot dead by members of his personal guard5. The new military leadership met with all the former rebel groups in the week of 17 April 1999 to reaffirm "commitment to the peace process and their goodwill."6 The coup, therefore, did not hinder the peace process. 

  • 5. Niger: Niamey "seems" calm but future unclear after assassination of president, BBC Monitoring Africa – Political, 10 April 1999.
  • 6. "Niger; Niger Peace Agreements Under Threat," Africa News, April 17, 1999.
2000

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.