Disarmament: Framework for a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict

PARIS AGREEMENT

Annex 2. Withdrawal Ceasefire and Related Measures

Article VII. Caches of weapons and military supplies

1: In order to stabilize the security situation, build confidence and reduce arms and military supplies throughout Cambodia, each Party agrees to provide to the Commander of the military component of UNTAC, before a date to be determined by him, all information at is disposal, including marked maps, about known or suspected caches of weapons and military supplies throughout Cambodia.

2: On the basis of information received, the military component of UNTAC shall, after the date referred to in paragraph 1, deploy verification teams to investigate each report and destroy each cache found.

Article IX. Unexploded ordnance devices

1: Soon after arrival in Cambodia, the military component of UNTAC shall ensure, as a first step, that all known minefields are clearly marked.

2: The Parties agree that, after completion of the regroupment and cantonment processes in accordance with Article III of the present annex, they will make available mine-clearing teams which, under the supervision and control of UNTAC military personnel, will leave the cantonment areas in order to assist in removing, disarming or deactivating remaining unexploded ordnance devices. Those mines or objects which cannot be removed, disarmed or deactivated will be clearly marked in accordance with a system to be devised by the military component of UNTAC.

3: UNTAC shall: a) Conduct a mass public education programme in the recognition and avoidance of explosive devices.

b) Train Cambodian volunteers to dispose of unexploded ordnance devices.

c) Provide emergency first-aid training to Cambodian volunteers.

Article X. Investigation of violations

1: After the beginning of the second phase, upon receipt of any information or complaint from one of the Parties relating to a possible case of non-compliance with any of the provisions of the present annex or related provisions, UNTAC will undertake an investigation in the manner which it deems appropriate. Where the investigation takes place in response to a complaint by one of the Parties, that Party will be required to make personnel available to accompany the UNTAC investigators. The results of such investigation will be conveyed by UNTAC to the complaining Party and the Party complained against, and if necessary to the SNC.

2: UNTAC will also carry out investigations on its own initiative in other cases when it has reason to believe or suspect that a violation of this annex or related provisions may be taking place.

Implementation History

1991

No Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

1992

Minimum Implementation

The United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) was to have completed the regrouping and cantonment stage within four weeks following the start of phase II of the disarmament process on June 13, 1992 - hence by July 11. The process was expected to disarm and demobilize 70% of the country’s estimated 200,000 soldiers. As of July 10, of the estimated 200,000 troops, the numbers of cantoned troops were as follows: CPAF, 9,003; ANKI, 3,187; KPNLAF, 1,322. However, reflecting PDK's position of non-cooperation, no NADK troops were cantoned.1 “As for the cantonment process, which had begun in June with the declaration of phase II, some 55,000 troops of the three participating factions, or approximately a quarter of the estimated total number of troops, entered the cantonment sites and handed over their weapons. This process, however, had to be suspended, due to the non-compliance by PDK and the deterioration of the military situation. Some 40,000 cantoned troops were subsequently released on agricultural leave, subject to recall by UNTAC” (United Nations).2 UNTAC suspended the disarmament of armed groups in Cambodia as the Khmer Rouge had refused to disarm.3

1993

Minimum Implementation

The demobilization and disarmament process was suspended. With the Khmer Rouge's refusal to respect the terms of "Phase Two," the other factions stopped disarming and, in most cases, called their demobilized men back into service.4 A new Cambodian armed force comprised of the CPP, FUNCINPEC, and KPNLF armies was formed. The disarmament process terminated without implementation.

  • 4. “UN struggles on despite failure of peace accord Kevin Barrington reports on the difficulties the UN has faced in trying to bring the main factions together in Cambodia,” The Irish Times, April 10, 1993.
1994

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

1995

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

1996

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

1997

Minimum Implementation

With the formation of a new armed force, the disarmament process did not make any progress. There was a dramatic increase in armaments in the run-up to the July 1997 coup; Rannaridh was convicted on charges of smuggling guns into the country.

1998

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

1999

Minimum Implementation

At a donor conference in March 1999, the government of Cambodia stated that it had discovered 15,551 "ghost" soldiers and 159,587 dependents. However purging these individuals from the payroll has been a slow process. It was also reported that at the end of September 1999, the number of illegal weapons confiscated constituted 16,412 rifles, 11 land mines, and 345 hand grenades. In a conference, it was stated that people had voluntarily turned in 5,655 rifles, 190 hand grenades, and 332 land mines, and that the government had destroyed 20,112 rifles.5

  • 5. “Cambodia donors satisfied but military demobilization slow,” BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific – Political, October 29, 1999.