Demobilization: Luena Memorandum of Understanding

CHAPTER 1: SUBJECT AND PRINCIPLES: 

1 -- SUBJECT

1.2. The objective of the Memorandum of Understanding is collaboration between the parties for the resolution of negative military factors posing an obstacle to the Lusaka Protocol, and the creation of conditions for its definitive conclusion.  

2 -- FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

2.2. The parties reiterate their unequivocal acceptance of the validity of pertinent political-juridical instruments, namely the Lusaka Protocol and UN Security Council resolutions related to the Angolan peace process. 

CHAPTER 2: AGENDA FOR THE MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING:

3. Cessation of Hostilities and Pending Military Issues under the Terms of the Lusaka Protocol: B) Disengagement, Quartering and Conclusion of the Demilitarization of UNITA Military Forces:

3.5. In this regard, the Joint Military Commission, with the support of the General Staff of the Angolan Armed Forces, proceeds to the quartering and demilitarization of all units and paramilitary elements of UNITA Military Forces as follows:

a) Providing information, from the High General Staff of UNITA Military Forces to the Joint Military Commission, covering all reliable and verifiable data related to the combat and numerical composition and location of units and paramilitary elements of UNITA Military Forces.

b) The establishment of monitoring mechanisms for the process of demilitarizing UNITA Military Forces.

c) The identification of military units and paramilitary elements of UNITA Military Forces and the establishment of quartering areas for them.

d) The definition of respective itineraries and means of movement, as well as the actual movement to quartering areas by military units and paramilitary elements of UNITA Military Forces.

e) The disengagement from stationing locations and movement to quartering areas of military units and paramilitary elements of UNITA Military Forces.

f) The reception, housing and feeding, as well as registration in quartering areas of personnel from military units and paramilitary elements of UNITA Military Forces.

E) DEMOBILIZATION OF UNITA MILITARY FORCES PERSONNEL AND THE EXTINCTION OF UNITA MILITARY FORCES

3.10 The parties reiterate their engagement in the scrupulous fulfillment of their commitments and obligations related to the task of demobilizing excess personnel coming from UNITA Military Forces and the extinction of the Military Forces of UNITA (in the spirit foreseen in Annex 4, Point II. 1 of the Work Agenda - Military Issues II of the Lusaka Protocol).

3.11 In this regard, the Joint Military Commission, with the support of the UN, in accordance with the mandate to be given by the UN Security Council or other organs of the UN system, proceeds to the demobilization of excess personnel coming from UNITA Military Forces and the extinction of UNITA Military Forces. The process encompasses the following:

a) The individual demobilization of excess personnel coming from UNITA Military Forces.

b) The formal and final extinction of UNITA Military Forces.

c) The placement of demobilized ex-UNITA Military Forces personnel under the administrative responsibility of the General Staff of the Angolan Armed Forces through its military regions and operational commands.

Annex 1

TO THE COMPLEMENTARY MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING TO THE LUSAKA PROTOCOL FOR THE CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES AND RESOLUTION OF REMAINING MILITARY ISSUES PENDING UNDER THE TERMS OF THE LUSAKA PROTOCOL

DOCUMENT RELATED TO THE QUARTERING OF UNITA MILITARY FORCES

The Delegation of the Angolan Armed Forces and the Delegation of UNITA Military Forces to the military talks, regarding the quartering of UNITA Military Forces, agree to the following:

1. Generalities related to quartering

(i) The quartering of Military Forces of UNITA should provide for the living conditions necessary for the accommodation of up to 50,000 military personnel. The breakdown of personnel is as follows: Approximately 12 generals and 47 brigadier generals, around 1,700 senior officers, about 17,350 junior officers, around 3,150 sergeants/noncommissioned officers and about 27,740 other enlisted personnel. They will remain for a specified period of time from initial reception until their integration into the FAA and National Police or, in the case of demobilized personnel, social-professional reintegration.

(ii) The quartering areas should have a working structure that is exceptionally well managed, with a capacity to accommodate up to 1,600 military personnel, and with security and easy access.

(iii) The quartering of UNITA Military Forces also implies on the one hand, the accommodation of 12 generals and 47 brigadier generals in cities close to the quartering areas. On the other hand, it also requires the organization and the arrangement of locations for the installation of military families near the quartering areas. The number of family members, including men, women and children could reach 300,000.

(iv) Living arrangements and initial emergency assistance for families of UNITA Military Forces personnel, as well as facilitating their reintegration in small activities producing goods and services, that is, projects for the rapid generation of income in the agriculture sector, rural commerce and other possible areas, is to be guaranteed by competent organs and entities of the state administration in strict collaboration the General Staff of the FAA, with the participation of the UN in accordance with the mandate to be given by the UN Security Council or other organs of the UN System. 

2. The Structure of the Quartering Area

(i) The quartering area has the following structure: The leadership of the quartering area is to include a Commander, a Deputy Commander, a Civic Education Officer, a Personnel Officer, a Weapons Officer, and a Communications Officer, to be designated from among the quartered personnel by the High General Staff of UNITA Military Forces. The Services and Support Group is to be comprised of a guard and garrison, a radio post, a medical post, cooking facilities and dining area, and a transportation section, designated from among the personnel to be quartered by the High General Staff of the UNITA Military Forces. Up to 16 companies of quartered personnel, each comprised of 100 military personnel.

(ii) The Commander of the quartering area is subordinate to the Commander of the Work Team from the General Staff of the FAA and is the individual responsible for the operation and discipline of the quartering area.

 3. Management of the Quartering Areas

(i) The management of the quartering areas is undertaken by the General Staff of the FAA through a Work Team headed by an Angolan Armed Forces general integrated from UNITA Military Forces, and with the cooperation of the UN, in accordance with a mandate to be given by the UN Security Council or other organs of the UN system that lend technical assistance to the organization and management, as well as support in material means.

(ii) The locations for the installation of military families of members of UNITA Military Forces are materially supported and administratively managed by competent organs of state administration in strict collaboration with the FAA General Staff, in addition to the participation of the UN in accordance with a mandate to be given by the UN Security Council or other organs of the UN system that lend technical assistance to the organization and management, as well as material means.

 4. Quartering Area Locations

(i) For personnel of UNITA Military Forces in the northern region: Madimba, township of Madimba, municipality of M'Banza Congo, Zaire Province; Vale do Logo, township of Vale do Loge, municipality of Bembe, Uige Province; Wamba, township of Wamba, municipality of Sanza Pombo, Uige Province; Fazenda Santa Cruz, township of Quibaxi, municipality of Quibaxi, Bengo Province; Town of Mussabo, municipality of Samba-Caju. Kwanza-Nortc Province.

(ii) For personnel of UNITA Military Forces in the northeast region: Capaia, township of Capaia, municipality of Lucapa, Lunda Norte Province; Damba Penitenciaria, township of Cátala, municipality of Caculama, Malange Province; Ganga Sol, township of Quissole, municipality of Malange, Malange Province. Chinege, township of Muriege, municipality of Muconda, Lunda Sul Province. N'Guimbi, township of Xá-Muteba, municipality of Xá-Muteba, Lunda Norte Province.

(iii) For personnel of UNITA Military Forces in the central region: Gando, township of Cambandua, municipality of Kuito, Biao Province; Capeça, township of Belo Horizonte, municipality of Cunhinga, Biao Province; Ponte do Rio Cacuchi, township of Cachingues, municipality of Chitembo, Biao Province; Sachitembo, township of Sambo, municipality of Tchikala Tchaloanga, Huambo Province; Lunge, township of Lunge, municipality of Bailundo, Huambo Province; Menga, township of Galanga, municipality of Londuimbale, Huambo Province; Chingongo, township of Chingongo, municipality of Balombo, Benguela Province; Fazenda Caporolo, township of Caporolo, municipality of Chongoroi, Benguela Province; Tchissamba, township of Mussende, municipality of Mussende, Kuanza Sul Province.

(iv) For personnel of UNITA Military Forces in the east region: Chícala, township of Cangumbe, municipality of Moxico, Moxico Province; Calapo, township of Lucusse, municipality of Moxico, Moxico Province.

(v) For personnel of UNITA Military Forces in the military zone of Cazumbo: Caíala, township of Calunda, municipality of Alto Zambeze, Moxico Province,

(vi) For personnel of UNITA Military Forces in the south region: Quilametro 50, township of Galangue, municipality of Chipindo, Huila Province; Kamuambo, township of Mupa, municipality of Cuvelai, Cuncne Province.

(vii) For personnel of UNITA Military Forces in Menongue: Soba Matias, township of Soba Matias, municipality of Menongue, Kuando Kubango Province.

Implementation History

2002

Intermediate Implementation

On 30 March 2002, FAA leader G. S. Nunda and UNITA leader Kamorteiro signed a ceasefire agreement ending the civil war.1 

UNITA troops began to travel to the assembly points identified in the Luena Agreement on the same day the agreement was officially signed. UNITA General Samuel Chiwale, a member of the Supreme Command of UNITA forces, instructed his troops to report to the assembly points in the Luena Agreement immediately.2 

In late April, the Angolan Embassy in Windhoek reported that more than 9,000 UNITA soldiers had entered 33 demobilization areas across Angola since the ceasefire.3 

As of May, some 25,000 UNITA troops had turned themselves in to the demobilization camps.4 

  • 1. “Angola Signs Ceasefire with UNITA Rebels,” Reuters News Agency, March 30, 2002.
  • 2. “UNITA Forces in Northern Front Begin Implementing Luena Accord,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, April 4, 2002.
  • 3. “Angola: UNITA Soldiers Give Themselves Up,” Africa News, April 29, 2002.
  • 4. “Angola Says 25,000 UNITA Rebels Now in Demob Camps,” Agence France Presse, May 3, 2002.
2003

Full Implementation

By the end of January, about 90,000 ex-soldiers had been registered in the assembly areas.5 

The government reported that 35 UNITA confinement areas, holding 100,000 demobilized UNITA soldiers and their families, would be shut down by the end of February. Under the timeline of the Luena Memorandum of Understanding, the confinement areas should close by the end of 2002.6 

The Angolan Peace Monitor reported that social reintegration programs were being planned to provide professional training for the 105,000 former UNITA fighters and 33,000 former FAA fighters that had been demobilized.7

  • 5. “Angola: Demobilisation and Reintegration Obstacles Highlighted,” Africa News, February 13, 2003.
  • 6. “Angola: UNITA Confinement Areas to Close Down by End of February,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, February 5, 2003.
  • 7. “Angola: Government Says Resettlement and Reintegration of Ex-Soldiers On Track,” Africa News, September 16, 2003.
2004

Full Implementation

Social reintegration programs continue; no further reports on demobilization found.

2005

Full Implementation

Social reintegration programs continue; no further reports on demobilization found.

2006

Full Implementation

Social reintegration programs continue; no further reports on demobilization found.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2011

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.