Demobilization: General Peace Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Senegal and MFDC

Clause two: The Guarantee and Consolidation of the Agreement

2. The Parties engage to establish an observation group composed of representatives from the Government, militaries, ex-combatants from the MFDC and representatives from the political wing of the MFCD, in charge of carrying out the process of demobilization of the military wing of the MFCD and the stocking of its arms under the control of the C.I.C.R., of the Raddho and the AJAC.

3. The MFDC engages to billet, to disarm and to demobilize its military wing according to the procedures defined by the ANRAC.

Implementation History

2005

No Implementation

According to a World Bank report, implementation of demobilization, reinsertion, and reintegration was dependent on the formal receipt from the MFDC to the government of the list of combatants identified for demobilization. To that end, the report stated there were negotiations between the government and the MFDC. The World Bank had initiated a program for the demobilization of combatants, the reintegration of combatants, IDPs and refugees, and the reconstruction of infrastructure in areas of return.1

  • 1. "Implementation Completion and Results Report (IDA-39820)," The World Bank, June 24, 2010.
2006

No Implementation

Contrary to World Bank information, in a news interview in October 2006, Koussaynobo Alphonse Diedhiou, coordinator of the National Agency for the Reconstruction of Casamance (ANRAC) said that "It is very difficult to realise a programme of demobilisation, disarmament and reintegration of the rebels, for example, without a peace process in place. There has not been a meeting between the MFDC and the government since 2004" (United Nations, 2006).2 In an interview, Director General of ANRAC argued, “If they (MFDC) are serious about the peace negotiations then they should lay down their weapons. It’s their responsibility to draw up a list and present that to us. How would we know who’s in their rank and file? If they give us a list, we’ll demobilize them. But as long as there is no list, there will be no disarmament and demobilization”.3

  • 2. “No End to Region’s Longest-Running War,” United Nations Integrated Regional Information Networks, October 16, 2006.
  • 3. Patty Chang, “No Development, No Peace? Demobilization and Reintegration in Casamance,” 2008 Annual International Studies Association Convention.
2007

No Implementation

In January, the prospect for formal demobilization greatly decreased as the MFDC leader who signed the 2004 peace accord, Abbe Diamacoune Senghor, died. In that context, the evolution of the MFDC from a unified separatist movement aiming to redress Casamance’s grievances to a factional movement driven more by economic considerations further decreased hopes for demobilization.4

  • 4. "Implementation Completion and Results Report (IDA-39820)," The World Bank, June 24, 2010.
2008

No Implementation

After lack of progress, the World Bank transferred its funds away from its demobilization project to other projects.5

  • 5. "Casamance Emergency Reconstruction Support Project," The World Bank, February 20, 2008.
2009

No Implementation

There was no mention of the demobilization program.

2010

No Implementation

There was no mention of the demobilization program.

2011

No Implementation

In 2011, the press reported that “the demobilisation, disarmament and reinsertion of some 2,000 fighters…has never been carried out” (Agence France Presse, 2011).6

  • 6. “Senegal’s president wants to reintegrate rebels,” Agence France Presse, Feb 18, 2011.
2012

No Implementation

In his 2012 new year’s speech, Senegalese President Wade said he would facilitate the process of social reintegration of rebels if disarmament and demobilization took place.7

  • 7. “Dakar Bishop and Wade in Bid to End Rebellion,” The Nation (Nairobi), January 2, 2012.
2013

No Implementation

While President Macky Sall’s government was negotiating with the MFDC on finding solutions, the demobilization was not initiated.

2014

No Implementation

Demobilization was not initiated.