Demobilization: General Agreement on the Establishment of Peace and National Accord in Tajikistan

Protocol on Military Issues (8 March 1997)

I. General Provisions:

1. The reintegration, disarmament and disbandment of the armed units of the United Tajik Opposition as well as the reform of the governmental power structures of the Republic of Tajikistan shall be carried out during the transition period by the President of the Republic of Tajikistan and the Commission on National Reconciliation in close cooperation with the United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) and in accordance with the timetable set forth in paragraphs 5, 9 and 11 of this Protocol.

2. The practical implementation of the provisions of this Protocol shall be carried out by a subcommission on military issues of the Commission on National Reconciliation and also by a joint central review board established on the basis of parity.

Implementation History

1997

Intermediate Implementation

The 1997 peace agreement does not include a specific demobilization plan. Instead, it refers to the disbandment of combatants, the details of which will be worked out by a military reform commission. Reintegration was to begin immediately and after the registration and integration process was completed, any remaining troops would be demobilized.1 

After the signing of the accord, UTO fighters were told to go registration sites in order to be considered for integration into the national military and to sign up for reintegration programs (i.e., job training or education). The process of registration of UTO fighters inside Tajikistan was underway by September 1997. Over 1,000 UTO fighters were registered by November.2 

  • 1. Stina Torjesen and S. Neil MacFarlane, “R before D: the case of post conflict reintegration in Tajikistan,” Conflict, Security and Development 7, no. 2 (2007): 311-332.
  • 2. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Tajikistan," United Nations (S/1997/859), November 5, 1997.
1998

Intermediate Implementation

UTO fighters continued to register for integration into the military and to get job training, however, many did not remain in the assembly areas, or turn in a weapon. According to one observer, the establishment of a demobilization process lagged behind the registration process. As a result, many UTO troops went back to their homes 3 

  • 3. Grant R. Smith, “Tajikistan: The Rocky Road to Peace,” Central Asian Survey 18, no. 2 (1999):243-251).
1999

Full Implementation

UTO leader, Mr. Nuri, formally declared the return of all UTO fighters to Tajikistan, the closing of all bases outside the country and the disbanding of all UTO military forces.4 By early May 1999, according to the UN Secretary General’s report, 6,238 UTO fighters were registered of which 1,917 were relieved from further service.5 By October 1999, a total of 2,370 UTO fighters were demobilized, with another 2,309 integrated into the national military forces.6

  • 4. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Tajikistan," United Nations (S/1999/124), February 8, 1999.
  • 5. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Tajikistan," United Nations (S/1999/514), May 6, 1999.
  • 6. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Tajikistan," United Nations (S/1999/1127), November 4, 1999.
2000

Full Implementation

The demobilization process ended in 1999. 

2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.