Demobilization: Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi

Protocol III, Chapter II: Article 21: Demobilization

1. Demobilization shall begin after the signature of the Agreement in accordance with the implementation timetable (see Annex V).

2. To move from war to peace requires demobilization within the defence and security forces as well as for the combatants of the political parties and movements.

3. Demobilization shall involve both the members of the Burundian armed forces and the combatants of the political parties and movements.

4. Lists of people to be demobilized shall be compiled.

5. Members to be demobilized shall be provided with some form of appropriate identification.

6. Demobilization criteria and a demobilization package shall be drawn up.

7. The categories of people to be demobilized shall be:

(a) Volunteers;

(b) Those members who are handicapped or disabled;

(c) Those who do not meet the age criteria;

(d) Those whose discipline is such that they cannot be retained within the new defence and security forces;

(e) Individuals whose educational level is such that they would not be able to undergo military or police training;

(f) Members of the Burundian armed forces and combatants of the political parties and movements who will be rationalized to yield efficient and affordable defence and security forces.

8. An organ to deal with the socio-professional reintegration of demobilized troops shall be established.

9. A technical committee to work out the programme and modalities of demobilization shall be set up.

10. The international community shall be requested to assist in the process of demobilization.

11. Following the demobilization process, a certificate shall be issued to demobilized troops.

12. Each demobilized person shall receive a demobilization allowance.

Pretoria Protocol on Political, Defence and Security Power Sharing in Burundi (2 November 2003)

1.4. Demobilisation

1.4.1 Combatants of the CNDD-FDD or FAB who have been found not to be eligible to join the Burundi National Defence Force terms of the Forces Technical Agreement, will be demobilized, taking into consideration paragraph 1.1.14 of the December 2002 Ceasefire Agreement.

1.4.2 The demobilization and integration of these combatants will be progressive, bearing In mind social stability and affordability. The Government shall oversee this process through the Minister of State and the Minister of Defence.

1.4.3 The final phase of demobilization will take place once the elected government is in place, guided by the required size of the Burundi National Defence Force and taking into consideration the work undertaken by the Transitional Government of Burundi. The Government of Burundi shall oversee this process

Implementation History

2003

No Implementation

After signing of an agreement with CNDD-FDD on 2 November 2003, Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration process in Burundi was scheduled to begin within 30 days. No significant achievement was made except for the announcement of commencement of demobilization of child combatants in January 2004 in sponsorship of the UNICEF.1

  • 1. "Demobilization scheduled for January 2004 in northwest Burundi," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, December 23, 2003.
2004

Minimum Implementation

The transitional government and the ONUB finalized the DDR plan in September according to which combatants from armed political parties and movement would assemble in 12 pre-disarmament assembly area. These area were closely monitored by the ONUB monitors prevent new recruits. As of 18 October, 20,979 combatants had reported to the assembly area.2

  • 2. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations Security Council  (S/2004/902), November 15, 2004.
2005

Intermediate Implementation

By mid-October, 17,459 combatants from the state armed force and the political parties and movement were demobilized. Among demobilized combatants, 3007 were children and 482 were female combatants.3

  • 3. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nation Security Council (S/2005/728,) November 21, 2005.
2006

Intermediate Implementation

As of November 2006, 21,769 former combatants and soldiers were demobilized.4

  • 4. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations Security Council (S/2006/994), December 18, 2006.
2007

Intermediate Implementation

Including 3,779 members from the National Defense Force, 24,105 combatants were demobilized by mid-November.5 By December, 24,504 combatants were demobilized.6

  • 5. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations Security Council  (S/2007/682), November 23, 2007.
  • 6. "Quarterly Progress Report," Multicountry Demobilization and Reintigration Program (October – December 2007), accessed February 21, 2013, http://www.mdrp.org/PDFs/2007-Q4-QPR-MDRP.pdf.
2008

Intermediate Implementation

According to MDRP report, 26,283 combatants were demobilized.7

2009

Intermediate Implementation

For demobilization process to continue, the World Bank approved $15 million grant. The Technical Coordination Team, then, was able to precede 4,950 FNL ex-combatants and 1,556 FNL dissidents at the Gitega demobilization center.8 In August, over 11,000 FNL combatants assembled in pre-assembly areas and they received return kits and first installment of assistance and transportation support to return to their communities.9

  • 8. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations Security Council  (S/2009/611), November 30, 2009.
  • 9. Ibid.
2010

Full Implementation

No further information available on demobilization. The demobilization program in Burundi, however, was lauded as effected by the United Nations Secretary General.10 

  • 10. "Citing progress, Ban urges further support for Burundi's peace process," Web newswire, February 12, 2012.
2011

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2012

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.