Demobilization: Agreement on Ending Hostilities in the Republic of Congo

AGREEMENT ON ENDING HOSTILITIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF CONGO

(29 DECEMBER 1999)

Chapter II: The Monitoring Commission for the Agreements on Cease-Fire and End of Hostilities

Article 2: The signatories of this agreement agree to the establishment of a mixed and equal Monitoring Commission for the Agreement on Ceasefire and Ending Hostilities, responsible for:

Ensuring the redeployment of the Security Forces throughout the national territory.

Implementation History

2000

Full Implementation

The demobilization process in the Republic of Congo was not very systematic as it did not go through the assembly or the cantonment phase. As soon as the accords were signed in November and December 1999, combatants affiliated with armed groups (i.e. Ntsiloulous, Cobras, and Cocoyes) self-demobilized. According to Themner (2011), the self-demobilization of combatants started in 1997 when the government disbanded militia groups and started to disarm them forcefully. An estimated 5,700-6,000 Ntsiloulous were demobilized since 1997. An estimated 13,200 ex-Cobras were demobilized when its last unit was dissolved in 2000 and an estimated 10,800 Cocoyes were demobilized from 1997-2000.1 In total, an estimated 30,000 ex-combatants were demobilized, according to the Programme National de Désarmament, Démobilisation et Réisertion (PNDDR).2 The PNDDR was responsible for the planning of the demobilization process and had a meager $25,000 budget.3

  • 1. Anders Themner, Violence in Post-Conflict Societies: Remarginalization, Remobilization and Relationships, (London: Routledge, 2011).
  • 2. Nelson Alusala and Guy Lamb, “Emerging Human Security Issues in the Planned Implementation of MDRP Fund in the Republic of Congo (RoC),”(paper contribution to DDR and Human Security: Post-conflict Security-building in the Interests of the Poor, University of Bradford, July 2008).
  • 3. Ibid.
2001

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

2002

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

2003

Because the demobilization program was not systematically pursued, not all combatants were demobilized right away. As a matter of fact, an estimated 2,000 ex- Ntsiloulous loyal to Ntoumi reorganized themselves in the Pool region. In April 2003, an estimated 2,300 ex-Ntsiloulous surrendered their arms and were demobilized.4 The PNDDR was responsible for the planning of the demobilization process and had a meager $25,000 budget.5 The last Cobra stable (cell) was dissolved only in the second half of 2000.6 In the DDR process, the Republic of Congo was part of the World Bank’s regional Multi-Donor Trust Fund for demobilization and reintegration. Nevertheless, the funding was used mostly for the reintegration program and not for the demobilization program.

  • 4. Ibid.
  • 5. Ibid.
  • 6. Themner, Violence in Post-Conflict Societies: Remarginalization, Remobilization and Relationships.
2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed. 

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.