Demobilization: Accra Peace Agreement

ARTICLE VI: CANTONMENT, DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILIZATION, REHABILITATION AND REINTEGRATION (CDDRR)

1. The parties commit themselves to ensuring the prompt and efficient implementation of a national process of cantonment, disarmament, demobilization, rehabilitation and reintegration.

3. Following disengagement, all forces shall withdraw from combat positions to cantonment locations in accordance with the withdrawal and cantonment plan to be published by the Internal Stabilisation Force and the NCDDRR, no later than thirty (30 ) days after installation of the NTGL. The current Armed Forces of Liberia shall be confined to the barracks, their arms placed in armouries and their ammunition in storage bunkers.

5. The JMC shall verify the reported data and information provided by the GOL, the LURD and the MODEL about their forces. All forces shall be restricted to the declared and recorded locations and all movements shall be authorized by the JMC and the ISF.

6. All combatants shall remain in the declared and recorded locations until they proceed to reintegration activities or training for entry into the restructured Liberian armed forces or into civilian life.

7. The ISF is requested to deploy to all disarmament and demobilization locations in order to facilitate and monitor the program of disarmament.

8. There shall be an interdisciplinary and interdepartmental National Commission for Disarmament, Demobilization, Rehabilitation and Reintegration (NCDDRR) to coordinate DDRR activities.

9. The NCDDRR shall comprise representatives from relevant NTGL Agencies, the GOL, LURD, MODEL, ECOWAS, the United Nations, the African Union and the ICGL.

10. It shall oversee and coordinate the disarmament, demobilization, rehabilitation and reintegration of combatants, working closely with the ISF and all relevant international and Liberian institutions and agencies.

11. Upon the signing of the present Agreement, the Transitional Government provided for in this Agreement shall request the International Community to assist in the implementation of the Cantonment, Disarmament, Demobilization, Rehabilitation and Reintegration program through the provision of adequate financial and technical resources.

Implementation History

2003

Intermediate Implementation

The number of combatants to be demobilized in Liberia varied depending on the sources from 103,000 to 107,000. According to The School for a Culture of Peace’s report on Liberia’s DDRR, combatants were “divided amongst a variety of armed groups and militias, including 35,000 members of the LURD (Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy), 14,000 members of MODEL (Movement for Democracy in Liberia), 16,000 pro-government militia fighters or paramilitaries, and 12,000 Armed Forces soldiers."1

The DDRR process was scheduled to begin with the establishment of the National Commission for Disarmament, Demobilization, Rehabilitation, and Reintegration (NCDDRR) on November 15. The NCDDRR was composed of representatives from the Transitional Government, LURD, MODEL, ECOWAS, AU, and the ICG. The Commission was charged with supervising the implementation of the DDRR program. Sixteen "generals" from each faction assisted the NCDDRR and helped move combatants to participate.2

The process of cantonment, disarmament, and demobilization was scheduled to begin by 15 December. The first phase began under the management of the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) on 7 December and lasted until 17 December. This phase targeted 1,000 combatants from each armed faction. Women and children were delegated to separate facilities within cantonment sites.3 Each ex-combatant was to receive a total payment of $300. This money came from a trust fund established for the use of the DDRR process and managed by the United Nations Development Program. The first $150 of the payment was to be paid following the initial 2-3 week demobilization process and the remaining $150 paid after reintegration.

The initial phase of the DDRR process was met by protests and riots. These were for the most part enacted by ex-combatants who demanded immediate payment in return for their weapons. The UNMIL restructured the payment scheme in the aftermath of these protests, and decided to provide $75 to ex-combatants immediately after their weapons were turned in, and the remaining $75 of the initial payment 2-3 weeks after the demobilization process was complete.4 The turnout for the first phase was high, with 12,664 ex-combatants disarmed. These peoples were given receipts for their participation and in the process 8,686 weapons were collected.5

  • 1. "School for a Culture of Peace," Liberia- DDRR (2009), http://escolapau.uab.cat/img/programas/desarme/mapa/liberia09i.pdf, accessed 10 May, 2011.
  • 2. "Secretary General's Report to the UN Security Council," United Nations Security Council (S/2003/875), September 11, 2003; "Liberia Country Programme," United Nations Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Resource Center, http://www.unddr.org/countryprogrammes.php?c=52, accessed 16 February 2010.
  • 3. "Secretary General's Report to the UN Security Council," United Nations Security Council (S/2003/1175), December 15, 2003.
  • 4. "Liberia; Former Fighters in Second Day of Riots, UNMIL Offers Official Payment," Africa News, December 9, 2003.
  • 5. "Liberia Country Programme," United Nations Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Resource Center, http://www.unddr.org/countryprogrammes.php?c=52, accessed February 16, 2010.
2004

Full Implementation

During this year, 103,019 combatants were demobilized. Of these, 91,737 were adults, (78,052 were men and 24,967 were women), and 11,282 were youths.6

According to a report, “during the demobilization and disarmament process, 612 disarmed combatants had identified themselves as foreign nationals: 50 from Côte d’Ivoire, 1 from Ghana, 308 from Guinea, 4 from Mali, 7 from Nigeria and 242 from Sierra Leone. UNMIL has initiated discussions with neighboring countries on their repatriation. Between 11 and 12 October, a team from UNMIL visited Sierra Leone to discuss with the Government and international partners the modalities for the repatriation of adult Sierra Leonean ex-combatants in Liberia."7

The demobilization in Liberia was successfully completed in 2004.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2011

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2012

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.