Decentralization/Federalism: Lusaka Protocol

ANNEX 6: AGENDA ITEM II.4: NATIONAL RECONCILIATION

I. General Principles

4. National Reconciliation implies:

(d) That, in accordance with Article 54(d) and (e) and Article 89(c) and (d) of the
Constitutional Law of the Republic of Angola, the administration of the country be effectively decentralized and deconcentrated;

5. Within the framework of National Reconciliation and without prejudice to the principle of national unity, the concretization of decentralization and administrative deconcentration, as stipulated in Paragraph 4(d) of the General Principles, shall be carried out.

Implementation History

1994

No Implementation

There were no developments regarding administrative decentralization in 1994.

1995

No Implementation

There were no developments regarding administrative decentralization in 1995. The Washington Times published a letter from Jonas Savimbi on the future of Angola in July. In it, Savimbi stated that Angola needed a democracy based on “the separation of powers - executive, legislative and judicial - administrative decentralization, establishment of a bill of rights and equal access to economic opportunities.”1

  • 1. “Lessons Learned in Angola,” The Washington Times, July 9, 1995.
1996

No Implementation

There were no developments regarding administrative decentralization in 1996. Secretary-General Kofi Annan delivered a speech to the National Assembly in March arguing that national renewal “requires a new approach to government and to the State. For example, it requires you, as legislators, to work together with the executive branch of Government, to make decentralization effective. That means that State administration must be extended throughout the country."2

  • 2. “UN Sec-Gen Urges Angola's National Assembly to Take Crucial Final Steps to Ensure Peace Process,” M2 PressWIRE, March 27, 1996.
1997

No Implementation

No developments this year regarding administrative decentralization. The UN Development Programme (UNDP) reported that 67 percent of the Angolan population was living below the poverty line and suggested that policies of decentralization were badly needed.3

  • 3. “Angola News Roundup,” Africa News, November 5, 1997.
1998

No Implementation

There were no further reports regarding decentralization in 1998.

The Uppsala Conflict Data Program coded the conflict between the Angolan government and UNITA as reaching the threshold of “war” in 1998 with over 1000 total deaths in the year. Coding for this case stops December 31, 1998.