Decentralization/Federalism: Interim Constitution Accord

Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act 200 of 1993 Chapter 9

124 Establishment of provinces

(1) The following provinces are hereby established, which for the purposes of this Constitution, but subject to subsection (2), shall be recognised as the provinces of the Republic:
(a) Eastern Cape;
(b) Eastern Transvaal;
(c) KwaZulu/Natal; [Para. (c) amended by s. 1 of Act 2 of 1994.]
(d) Northern Cape;
(e) Northern Transvaal;
(f) North-West;
(g) Orange Free State;
(h) Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging; and
(i) Western Cape:

125 Provincial Legislature

(1) There shall be a legislature for each province.
(2) The legislative authority of a province shall, subject to this Constitution, vest in the provincial legislature, which shall have the power to make laws for the province in accordance with this Constitution.
(3) Laws made by a provincial legislature shall, subject to any exceptions as may be provided for by an Act of Parliament, be applicable only within the territory of the province.

126 Legislative competence of provinces

(1) A provincial legislature shall be competent, subject to subsections (3) and (4), to make laws for the province with regard to all matters which fall within the functional areas specified in Schedule 6. [Sub-s. (1) substituted by s. 2 (a) of Act 2 of 1994.]

(2) The legislative competence referred to in subsection (1), shall include the competence to make laws which are reasonably necessary for or incidental to the effective exercise of such legislative competence.

(2A) Parliament shall be competent, subject to subsections (3) and (4), to make laws with regard to matters referred to in subsections (1) and (2). [Sub-s. (2A) inserted by s. 2 (b) of Act 2 of 1994.]

(3) A law passed by a provincial legislature in terms of this Constitution shall prevail over an Act of Parliament which deals with a matter referred to in subsection (1) or (2) except in so far as-

(a) the Act of Parliament deals with a matter that cannot be regulated effectively by provincial legislation;

(b) the Act of Parliament deals with a matter that, to be performed effectively, requires to be regulated or co-ordinated by uniform norms or standards that apply generally throughout the Republic;

(c) the Act of Parliament is necessary to set minimum standards across the nation for the rendering of public services;

(d) the Act of Parliament is necessary for the maintenance of economic unity, the protection of the environment, the promotion of interprovincial commerce, the protection of the common market in respect of the mobility of goods, services, capital or labour, or the maintenance of national security; or

(e) the provincial law materially prejudices the economic, health or security interests of another province or the country as a whole, or impedes the implementation of national economic policies. [Sub-s. (3) substituted by s. 2 (c) of Act 2 of 1994.]

(4) An Act of Parliament shall prevail over a provincial law, as provided for in subsection (3), only if it applies uniformly in all parts of the Republic.

(5) An Act of Parliament and a provincial law shall be construed as being consistent with each other, unless, and only to the extent that, they are, expressly or by necessary implication, inconsistent with each other.

(6) A provincial legislature may recommend to Parliament the passing of any law relating to any matter in respect of which such legislature is not competent to make laws or in respect of which an Act of Parliament prevails over a provincial law in terms of subsection (3).

127 Composition of provincial legislature

(1) A provincial legislature shall consist of not fewer than 30 and not more than 100 members elected in accordance with the system of proportional representation of voters provided for in Schedule 2 and the Electoral Act, 1993.

(2) The number of seats in a provincial legislature shall, subject to subsection (1), be determined in accordance with Schedule 2.

(3) The members of a provincial legislature shall be elected from provincial lists of party candidates for the province in question. [Date of commencement of s. 127: 9 March 1994.]

128 Duration and dissolution of provincial legislatures

(1) A provincial legislature, as constituted in terms of an election of such legislature under this Constitution, shall, subject to subsection (2), continue for five years as from the date of such election, at the expiry of which it shall be dissolved.

(2) If during the period referred to in subsection (1) a provincial legislature is dissolved in terms of section 154 (1) or (3) (c) or 162, the provincial legislature as constituted then, shall continue for the period up to the day immediately preceding the commencement of polling for the election of the provincial legislature held in pursuance of such dissolution.

(3) Notwithstanding any dissolution of a provincial legislature-

(a) every person who at the date of the dissolution is a member of the provincial legislature shall remain a member thereof;

(b) the provincial legislature shall remain competent to perform its functions; and

(c) the Premier of the province shall be competent to summon the provincial legislature by proclamation in the Provincial Gazette to an extraordinary sitting for the dispatch of urgent business, during the period for which the provincial legislature continues in terms of subsection (2) after the dissolution.

129 Elections

(1) If a provincial legislature is dissolved in terms of section 128 (1), 154 (1) or (3) (c) or 162, the Premier of the province shall upon such dissolution, by proclamation in the Provincial Gazette call an election of such legislature, which election shall take place within 90 days after the dissolution of the legislature on a date or dates specified in the proclamation.

(2) An election referred to in subsection (1), shall be conducted in accordance with the Electoral Act, 1993.

130 Sittings of provincial legislature

(1) The Secretary of a provincial legislature shall convene such legislature within seven days after an election of such legislature.

(2) The provincial legislature shall sit during such periods and on such days and during such hours as it may determine: Provided that the Premier of a province may at any time by proclamation in the Provincial Gazette summon the provincial legislature to an extraordinary sitting for the dispatch of urgent business.

131 Speaker and Deputy Speaker of provincial legislature

(1) At its first sitting after it has been convened under section 130 (1), and after the election of the Premier of the province, a provincial legislature with a judge of the Supreme Court designated by the Chief Justice acting as the chairperson, shall elect one of its members to be the Speaker, and shall thereafter elect another of its members to be the Deputy Speaker of such legislature.

(2) The provisions of Schedule 5 and section 41 (3) to (10) shall apply mutatis mutandis in respect of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of a provincial legislature.

132 Qualification for membership of provincial legislatures

(1) No person shall be qualified to become or remain a member of a provincial legislature unless he or she is qualified to become a member of the National Assembly.

(2) A member of a provincial legislature who is elected as the Premier or appointed as a member of the Executive Council of a province shall for the purposes of section 42 (1) (e) be deemed not to hold an office of profit under the Republic.

(3) The provisions of section 40 (2), (3), (4) and (5) shall mutatis mutandis apply to a person nominated as a candidate for election to a provincial legislature, and in any such application a reference in that section to a regional list shall be construed as a reference to a provincial list as contemplated in Schedule 2. [Date of commencement of s. 132: 9 March 1994.]

133 Vacation of seats and filling of vacancies

(1) A member of a provincial legislature shall vacate his or her seat if he or she-

(a) ceases to be eligible to be a member of the provincial legislature in terms of section 132;

(b) ceases to be a member of the party which nominated him or her as a member of the provincial legislature;

(c) resigns his or her seat by submitting his or her resignation in writing to the Secretary of the provincial legislature;

(d) absents himself or herself voluntarily from sittings of the provincial legislature for 30 consecutive sitting days, without having obtained the leave of the provincial legislature in accordance with the rules and orders; or

(e) becomes a member of the National Assembly or the Senate.

(2) The provisions of section 44 (1) and (2) shall apply mutatis mutandis in respect of the filling of vacancies in a provincial legislature, and in any such application a reference to-

(a) the National Assembly shall be construed as a reference to a provincial legislature; and

(b) a list of party candidates shall be construed as a reference to a list referred to in section 127 (3).

(3) A nomination in terms of this section shall be submitted in writing to the Speaker of the provincial legislature in question.

Executive authority of provinces

(1) The executive authority of a province shall vest in the Premier of the province, who shall exercise and perform his or her powers and functions subject to and in accordance with this Constitution.

(2) A province shall have executive authority over all matters in respect of which such province has exercised its legislative competence, matters assigned to it by or under section 235 or any law, and matters delegated to it by or under any law.

145 Election of Premiers

(a) The provincial legislature of a province shall at its first sitting after it has been convened in terms of section 130(1), elect one of its members as the Premier of the province.

(b) A provincial legislature shall thereafter, as often as it again becomes necessary to elect a Premier, elect one of its members as the Premier of the province.

(c) The provisions of Schedule 5 shall apply mutatis mutandis in respect of the election of the Premier of a province.

(2) A judge of the Supreme Court designated by the Chief Justice for this purpose, shall preside over an election referred to in subsection (1).

(3) The election of a Premier in terms of subsection (1) (b) shall take place at a time and on a date fixed by the judge so designated: Provided that-

(a)if such election of a Premier is occasioned by reason of a dissolution of the provincial legislature, it shall take place within 14 days after the election of the provincial legislature held in pursuance of such dissolution; or

(b)if suchelection of a Premier is occasioned by reason of a vacancy in the office of Premier, it shall take place within 30 days after the vacancy arose.

146 Tenure of and removal from office of Premiers

(1) The Premier of a province elected in terms of section 145 (1) shall, subject to subsection (2) and section 154(2), hold office-

(a)for the period referred to in section 128 (1); or

(b)if the provincial legislature is dissolved during such period, for the period until such dissolution, and shall thereafter remain in office until a Premier has been elected in terms of section 145 (1) (b) after the dissolution and has assumed office.

(2) The Premier of a province shall cease to hold office on a resolution adopted by the provincial legislature by a majority of at least two-thirds of all its members and impeaching the Premier on the ground of a serious violation of this Constitution or the other laws of the Republic or the province in question, or of misconduct or inability rendering him or her unfit to exercise and perform his or her powers and functions in accordance with section 147.

147 Responsibilities, powers and functions of Premiers

(1) The Premier of a province shall be responsible for the observance of the provisions of this Constitution and all other laws by the executive of the province, and shall be competent to exercise and perform the following powers and functions, namely-

(a)to assent to, sign and promulgate Bills duly passed by the provincial legislature;

(b)in the event of a procedural shortcoming in the legislative process, to refer a Bill passed by the provincial legislature back for further consideration by such legislature;

(c)to convene meetings of the Executive Council;

(d)to appoint commissions of enquiry;

(e)to make such appointments as may be necessary under powers conferred upon him or her by this Constitution or any other law; and

(f)to proclaim referenda and plebiscites in terms of this Constitution or a provincial law.

(2) The Premier of a province shall exercise and perform all powers and functions assigned to him or her by this Constitution or any other law, except those specified in subsection (1) or where otherwise expressly or by implication provided in this Constitution, in consultation with the Executive Council of the province: Provided that the Executive Council may delegate its consultation function in terms of this subsection, with reference to any particular power or function of the Premier, to any member or members of the Executive Council.

148 Acting Premiers

(1) The Premier of a province shall appoint one of the members of the Executive Council of the province to act as Premier during his or her absence or temporary incapacity.

(2) Should it be necessary that an Acting Premier be appointed and the Premier is absent or unable to make such an appointment, or if the office of Premier is vacant, the other members of the Executive Council shall make such appointment.

(3) An Acting Premier shall while acting as Premier have all the powers and functions vested in the office of Premier.

149 Executive Councils

(1) The Executive Council of a province shall consist of the Premier and not more than 10 members appointed by the Premier in accordance with this section.

(2) A party holding at least 10 per cent of the seats in a provincial legislature and which has decided to participate in the Executive Council, shall be entitled to be allocated one or more of the Executive Council portfolios in proportion to the number of seats held by it in the provincial legislature relative to the number of seats held by the other participating parties.

(3) Executive Council portfolios shall for the purposes of subsection (2) be allocated mutatis mutandis in accordance with the formula set out in paragraphs (a) to (e) of section 88 (3), to the respective participating parties.

(4) The Premier of a province shall after consultation with the leaders of the participating parties-

(a)determine the specific portfolios to be allocated to the respective participating parties in accordance with the number of portfolios allocated to them in terms of subsection (3);

(b)appoint in respect of each such portfolio a member of the provincial legislature who is a member of the party to which that portfolio was allocated under paragraph (a), as the member of the Executive Council responsible for that portfolio;

(c)if it becomes necessary for the purposes of this Constitution or in the interest of good government, vary any determination under paragraph (a), subject to subsection (3);

(d)terminate any appointment under paragraph (b)-

(i)if he or she is requested to do so by the leader of the party of which the relevant member of the Executive Council is a member; or

(ii)if it becomes necessary for the purposes of this Constitution or in the interest of good government; or

(e)fill when necessary, subject to paragraph (b), a vacancy in the office of a member of the Executive Council.

(5) Subsection (4) shall be implemented in the spirit underlying the concept of a government of national unity, and the Premier and the other functionaries concerned shall for the purposes of subsection (4) endeavour to achieve consensus at all times: Provided that if consensus cannot be achieved on-

(a)the exercise of a power referred to in paragraph (a), (c) or (d) (ii) of that subsection, the Premier's decision shall prevail;

(b)the exercise of a power referred to in paragraph (b), (d) (i) or (e) of that subsection affecting a person who is not a member of the Premier's party, the decision of the leader of the party of which such person is a member shall prevail; and

(c)the exercise of a power referred to in paragraph (b) or (e) of that subsection affecting a person who is a member of the Premier's party, the Premier's decision shall prevail.

(6) If any determination of portfolio allocations is varied under subsection (4) (c), the affected members of the Executive Council shall vacate their portfolios but shall be eligible, where applicable, for re-appointment to other portfolios allocated to their respective parties in terms of the varied determination.

(7) The Premier or a member of the Executive Council shall, before formally assuming office, make and subscribe an oath or solemn affirmation in the terms set out in Schedule 3 before a judge of the Supreme Court designated by the Chief Justice for this purpose.

(8) No member of an Executive Council may take up any other paid employment, engage in activities inconsistent with his or her membership of the Executive Council, or expose himself or herself to any situation which carries with it the risk of a conflict between his or her responsibilities as a member of the Executive Council and his or her private interests.

(9) No member of the Executive Council shall use his or her position as such, or directly or indirectly use information entrusted confidentially to him or her in such capacity, to enrich himself or herself or any other person.

(10) There shall, subject to section 207 (2), be paid out of and as a charge on the Provincial Revenue Fund of a province to the Premier and to a member of an Executive Council of such province such remuneration and allowances as may be prescribed by or determined under a law of the provincial legislature. [Sub-s. (10) substituted by s. 11 of Act 13 of 1994.]

150 Executive Council procedure

(1) Meetings of the Executive Council shall be presided over by the Premier.

(2) The Executive Council shall function in a manner which gives consideration to the consensus-seeking spirit underlying the concept of a government of national unity as well as the need for effective government.

151 Temporary assignment of powers and functions to Executive Council members

Whenever a member of an Executive Council of a province is absent or for any reason unable to exercise and perform any of the powers and functions assigned to him or her, or whenever a member of an Executive Council has vacated his or her office and a successor has not yet been appointed, the Premier may appoint any other member of the Council to act in the said member's stead, either generally or in the exercise or performance of any specific power or function.

156 Levying of taxes by provinces

(1) A provincial legislature shall be competent to raise taxes, levies and duties, other than income tax or value-added or other sales tax, and to impose surcharges on taxes, provided that-

(a)it is authorised to do so by an Act of Parliament passed after recommendations of the Financial and Fiscal Commission on the draft text of any such Act have been submitted to and considered by Parliament; and
(b)there is no discrimination against non-residents of that province who are South African citizens. [Sub-s. (1) amended by s. 4 (a) of Act 2 of 1994.]

(1A) Sections 59 (2) and 60 shall not apply to an Act referred to in subsection (1), and such an Act shall be passed by the National Assembly and the Senate sitting separately. [Sub-s. (1A) inserted by s. 4 (b) of Act 2 of 1994.]

(1B) A provincial legislature shall notwithstanding subsection (1) have exclusive competence within its province to impose taxes, levies and duties (excluding income tax or value- added or other sales tax) on-
(a)casinos;

(b)gambling, wagering and lotteries; and

(c)betting. [Sub-s. (1B) inserted by s. 4 (b) of Act 2 of 1994.]

(2) A provincial legislature shall not be entitled to levy taxes detrimentally affecting national economic policies, inter-provincial commerce or the national mobility of goods, services, capital and labour.

(3) A provincial legislature shall be competent to enact legislation authorising the imposition of user charges: Provided that-

(a)such legislation may only be enacted after consideration by the provincial legislature of any recommendations made by the Financial and Fiscal Commission concerning the criteria according to which such charges should be determined; and

(b)there is non discrimination against non-residents of that province who are South African citizens. [Sub-s. (3) amended by s. 4 (c) of Act 2 of 1994.]

157 Raising of loans by provinces

(1) A province-

(a)shall, subject to subsection (2), not be competent to raise loans for current expenditure; and

(b)shall be competent to raise loans for capital expenditure, provided it does so within the framework of reasonable norms and conditions prescribed by an Act of Parliament passed after recommendations of the Financial and Fiscal Commission relating to the draft text of any such Act have been submitted to and considered by Parliament. [Para. (b) substituted by s. 5 (a) of Act 2 of 1994.] (1A) Sections 59 (3) and 60 shall not apply to an Act referred to in subsection (1) (b), and such an Act shall be passed by the National Assembly and the Senate sitting separately. [Sub-s. (1A) inserted by s. 5 (b) of Act 2 of 1994.]

(2) Loans referred to in subsection (1) (a) may be raised for bridging finance during a fiscal year, subject to the condition that they shall be redeemed within 12 months and subject to such further, reasonable conditions as may be prescribed by an Act of Parliament passed after recommendations of the Financial and Fiscal Commission relating to the draft text of any such Act have been submitted to and considered by Parliament. [Sub-s. (2) substituted by s. 5 (c) of Act 2 of 1994.]

(3) A province may not guarantee a loan unless-

(a)the Financial and Fiscal Commission has verified the need for a guarantee and recommended that it be given; and

158 Revenue allocations by national government Financial allocations by the national government

(a)to a provincial or local government, shall be made in terms of an appropriation Act; and

(b)to a local government, shall ordinarily be made through the provincial government of the province in which the local government is situated. [S. 158 substituted by s. 6 of Act 2 of 1994.]

161 Development of provincial constitutional dispensation

(1) The development of a system of provincial government shall receive the priority attention of the Constitutional Assembly, and in this regard it shall take into consideration any recommendations of the Commission on Provincial Government and any comments thereon by the respective provincial governments.

(2) Any recommendations of the Commission to the Constitutional Assembly shall include draft provisions for inclusion in the new constitutional text in so far as they relate to matters falling within the ambit of the Commission's object in terms of section 164.

(3) The Constitutional Assembly shall deal with such draft provisions in the same manner as it is required in terms of this Constitution to deal with other constitutional proposals.

(4) Draft provisions recommended by the Commission which are not adopted by the Constitutional Assembly shall lapse, except if the Constitutional Assembly by resolution of a majority of the members present and voting refers the recommended provisions back to the Commission for further consideration.

(5) Draft provisions referred back to the Commission may again be presented to the Constitutional Assembly, provided that if amended in one or more substantive respects, the provisions of this section regarding the acceptance, rejection or referral of the recommendations of the Commission shall apply mutatis mutandis.

162 Election of new provincial governments

A provincial government may at any time after the commencement of a provincial constitution contemplated in section 160 or of the constitutional dispensation contemplated in section 161, petition the Constitutional Assembly to dissolve its provincial legislature and to call an election for the establishment of a new provincial legislature and executive authority in that province.

Commission on Provincial Government

163 Establishment of Commission on Provincial Government

There is hereby established a Commission on Provincial Government consisting of not less than 10 and not more than 15 members appointed by the President subject to section 165.

164 Object and functions of Commission

(1) The object of the Commission is to facilitate the establishment of provincial government, and the Commission shall for the achievement of that object be competent-

(a)to advise the Constitutional Assembly on the development of a constitutional dispensation with regard to provincial systems of government;

(b)to advise the national government or a provincial government on the establishment and consolidation of administrative institutions and structures in a province or on any matter arising out of the application of section 124; and

(c)to make recommendations to the national government or a provincial government on the rationalisation of statutory enactments or public sector resources directed at the introduction and maintenance of an effective system of provincial government.

(2) Advice to the Constitutional Assembly in terms of subsection (1) (a), shall include recommendations in the form of draft constitutional provisions regarding-
(a)the finalisation of the number and the boundaries of the provinces of the Republic;

(b)the constitutional dispensations of such provinces, including the constitutional structures within such provinces as well as the method of their election and their authority, functions and procedures;

(c)measures, including transitional measures, that provide for the phasing in of new provincial constitutional dispensations;

(d)the final delimitation of powers and functions between national and provincial institutions of government, with due regard to the criteria that are set out in subsection (3);

(e)fiscal arrangements between the institutions of national government and those of the provincial governments;

(f)the powers and functions of local governments; and

(g)any matter which the Commission considers to be relevant or ancillary to its functions.

(3) In carrying out its functions the Commission shall, inter alia, take into consideration-

(a)the provisions of this Constitution;

(b)the Constitutional Principles set out in Schedule 4;

(c)historical boundaries, including those set out in Part 1 of Schedule 1, former provincial boundaries, magisterial district boundaries and infrastructures;

(d)administrative considerations, including the availability or non-availability of infrastructures and nodal points for service;

(e)the need to rationalise existing structures;

(f)cost-effectiveness of government, administration and the delivery of services;

(g)the need to minimise inconvenience;

(h)demographic considerations;

(i)economic viability;

(j)developmental potential; and

(k)cultural and language realities.

165 Constitution of Commission

(1) The members of the Commission shall be appointed by the President within 30 days of the commencement of this Constitution.

(2) Unless the President otherwise determines, the members of the Commission shall be appointed in a full-time capacity.

(3) At least one member of the Commission shall be appointed from each province with the concurrence of the Premier of the province.

(4) A member of the Commission shall perform his or her functions fairly, impartially and independently.

(5) A member appointed in a full-time capacity shall not perform or commit himself or herself to perform remunerative work outside his or her functions as a member of the Commission.

(6) A member of the Commission shall not hold office in any political party or political organisation.

166 Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson

(1) The President shall designate one of the members of the Commission as the Chairperson and another as the Deputy Chairperson.

(2)(a) If the Chairperson is absent or unable to perform his or her functions as chairperson, or when there is a vacancy in the office of Chairperson, the Deputy Chairperson shall act as Chairperson, and if both the Chairperson and the Deputy Chairperson are absent or unable to perform the functions of the Chairperson, the Commission shall elect another member to act as Chairperson.

(b) While acting as Chairperson the Deputy Chairperson or such member may exercise the powers and shall perform the functions of the Chairperson.
167 Vacation of office and filling of vacancies

(1) A member of the Commission shall vacate his or her office if he or she resigns or if he or she becomes disqualified in terms of section 165 to hold office or is removed from office under subsection (2).

(2) A member of the Commission may be removed from office by the President only on the grounds of misbehaviour, incapacity or incompetence established by a judge of the Supreme Court after an enquiry.

(3) If a member of the Commission ceases to hold office, the President may, subject to section 165, appoint a person to fill the vacancy.

168 Meetings of Commission

(1) The first meeting of the Commission shall be held within 30 days of its appointment at a time and place to be determined by the Chairperson, and subsequent meetings shall be held at a time and place determined by the Commission or, if authorised thereto by the Commission, by the Chairperson.

(2) A quorum for a meeting of the Commission shall not be less than one half of all its members.

(3) A decision of a majority of the members of the Commission shall constitute a decision of the Commission and in the event of an equality of votes the Chairperson shall have a casting vote in addition to his or her deliberative vote.

(4) All the decisions of the Commission shall be recorded.

169 Committees

(1) The Commission may establish committees from among its members.

(2) The Commission shall designate one of the members of a committee as chairperson thereof, and if any such chairperson is absent from a meeting of the committee the members present shall elect one from among their number to act as chairperson.

(3) The Commission may, subject to such directions as, it may issue from time to time-

(a)delegate any power granted to it by or under section 164 to such a committee; and

(b)authorise such a committee to perform any function assigned to the Commission by section 164.

(4) The Commission shall not be divested of a power so delegated and the performance of a function so authorised, and may amend or withdraw any decision of a committee.

Implementation History

1993

Minimum Implementation

The November 1993 accord calls for the establishment of 9 new provinces, each with its own legislature, executive council and state constitution for the following areas:

(a) Eastern Cape;
(b) Eastern Transvaal;
(c) KwaZulu/Natal;
(d) Northern Cape;
(e) Northern Transvaal;
(f) North-West;
(g) Orange Free State;
(h) Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging; and
(i) Western Cape:

The accord established a Commission on Provincial Government to debate and draft legislation for the creation of the provincial states.

1994

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

1995

Minimum Implementation

Proposals were drafted for the new constitution regarding the boundaries of the provinces.

1996

Full Implementation

The 1996 new constitution established 9 new provinces in South Africa under Article 103. According to the constitution, these provinces have their own constitution, legislative and executive powers.

Eastern Cape
Free State
Gauteng
KwaZulu-Natal
Limpopo
Mpumalanga
Northern Cape
North West
Western Cape

1997

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1998

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1999

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2000

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.