Civil Administration Reform: Ouagadougou Political Agreement (OPA)

OUAGADOUGOU POLITICAL AGREEMENT 

IV. Restoration of the authority of the State and redeployment of the administration throughout the national territory

4.1. Resolutely determined to bring about political and institutional normalization in Côte d'Ivoire, the Parties to this Agreement pledge to restore the authority of the State and to redeploy the administration and all public services throughout the national territory.

4.2. The redeployment of the administration and of public services shall be done by all ministries concerned, under the authority of the Prime Minister, as soon as the zone of confidence is dismantled and observation posts established. The redeployment of the administration shall involve all public services, including the basic social services in such sectors as education, health, water and sanitation.

4.3. Heads of the main administrative services shall be appointed after consultations between the two Parties.

Implementation History

2007

Intermediate Implementation

Significant achievements were made in terms of the restoration of state authority and the redeployment of the administration throughout Ivory Coast. In this regard, Comité National de Pilotage du Redéploiement de L’administration, or the National Commission for the Redeployment of the Administration, was established right after the establishment of the transitional government in March. The Prime Minister was to oversee the work of the Commission, with support from key ministries such as the Ministry of Public Service, the Ministry of Home Affairs, and the Ministry of Local Administration. As indicated in the United Nations Secretary General’s report, a total of 12,337 civil servants returned to their posts (8,381 in the north and 3,962 in the west) out of a total displacement of 24,437. The remaining restoration was expected to take place between April and June.1 The remaining deployment, however, did not take place due to financial difficulties.2 Nevertheless, the President issued a decree on 5 June 2007 and appointed 158 préfets and secretaries-general of prefectures. In another decree on 5 June, 45 magistrates were appointed to mobile courts. Similarly, 296 new sous-préfets were appointed by a decree on 15 August.3 While a few restored civil servants returned due to poor living conditions in their area of deployment,4 the redeployment of civil servants was completed in areas controlled by Forces Nouvelles. Rebels agreed to transfer their financial and administrative authority to the redeployed state administration.5 The transfer of authority did not occur.

  • 1. “Thirteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2007/275), May 14, 2007.
  • 2. “Fourteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2007/ 593), October 1, 2007.
  • 3. “Fourteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2007/ 593), October 1, 2007.
  • 4. “Fourteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2007/ 593), October 1, 2007.
  • 5. “Fifteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2008/1), January 2, 2008.
2008

Minimum Implementation

The redeployment of the fiscal and customs administrations, which was supposed to be completed by the end of December 2007, did not happen as provisioned in the supplementary agreement.6 Therefore, the Evaluation and Monitoring Committee called on parties to implement the supplementary agreement in a meeting on 21 March.7 As of March 2008, out of 24,437 civil servants, 6,094 were still waiting for redeployment due to a financial shortfall.8 While progress related to the redeployment of law enforcement, justice, and corrections personnel to the north did not happen, Forces Nouvelles transferred administrative authority to the redeployed administrations as of early July 2008.9 However, it was reported that the commanders of Forces Nouvelles were reluctant to give up their administrative control.10

  • 6. “Sixteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2008/250), April 15, 2008.
  • 7. “Sixteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2008/250), April 15, 2008.
  • 8. “Sixteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2008/250), April 15, 2008.
  • 9. “Seventeenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,”United Nations Security Council (S/2008/451), July 10, 2008.
  • 10. “Eighteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2008/645.), October 13, 2008.
2009

Minimum Implementation

The full restoration of state administration, unification of the divided country, and the delivery of public services were still issues in 2009. Parties had reached a fourth supplementary agreement on 22 December 2008, asking for the total restoration of state administration, including judicial and fiscal administration, and the delivery of goods and services by 15 January 2009.11 The effective delivery of public services had continuously been interrupted since 2007, as those working in education, civil administration, and health services were engaged in strikes.12 As of early March, judges and public prosecutors were nominated and redeployed.13 The same report also suggested that the reunification of the Ivory Coast did not happen.

  • 11. “Nineteenth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2009/21), January 8, 2009.
  • 12. “Twentieth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2009/196), April 13, 2009.
  • 13. “Twentieth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2009/196), April 13, 2009.
2010

Minimum Implementation

A full restoration of state administration was still an issue as of November 2010. Nevertheless, it was reported that some progress was made.14

  • 14. “Twenty-sixth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2010/600), November 23, 2010.
2011

Intermediate Implementation

The November runoff elections brought forth a full-fledged armed conflict when Mr. Gbagbo refused to relinquish power after Alassane Ouattara was declared winner of the presidential elections. Rebels captured Mr. Gbagbo on 11 April. After his arrest, it was determined that the restoration of state administration and unification of the country should be easier.15 Indeed, some noticeable progress was made in terms of redeploying administrative and custom personnel throughout the country. On 28 September, the government also adopted a decree to reform the administrative and territorial organization of the country, increasing the number of districts and regions in the country.16 This decree marked substantial progress in terms of the implementation of the civil administration reform provisions in the 2007 accord that asked for the restoration of administration, unification of the country, and delivery of public services.

  • 15. “Twenty-eighth report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2011/387), June 24, 2011.
  • 16. “Twenty-ninth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2011/807), December 30, 2011.
2012

Full Implementation

As of June 2012, state authority was fully restored and started to become effective.17

  • 17. “Thirtieth progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire,” United Nations Security Council (S/2012/506), June 29, 2012.
2013

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2014

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2015

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.