Civil Administration Reform: Luena Memorandum of Understanding

CHAPTER 1: SUBJECT AND PRINCIPLES: 

1 -- SUBJECT

1.2. The objective of the Memorandum of Understanding is collaboration between the parties for the resolution of negative military factors posing an obstacle to the Lusaka Protocol, and the creation of conditions for its definitive conclusion. 

2 -- FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

2.2. The parties reiterate their unequivocal acceptance of the validity of pertinent political-juridical instruments, namely the Lusaka Protocol and UN Security Council resolutions related to the Angolan peace process.

LUSAKA PROTOCOL

Annex 6: Agenda Item II.4: National Reconciliation: I. General Principles:

4. National Reconciliation implies: (c) That, in the pursuit of national interest, UNITA members participate adequately at all levels and in the various institutions of political, administrative and economic activity.

II. SPECIFIC PRINCIPLES

10. In order to cement National Reconciliation, the principle of the participation of UNITA members, including those professionally qualified to carry out public administration functions, namely teachers, health workers and technical staff, at the various levels of administrative and economic activity of the State, including the mass media and public enterprise sectors, shall be implemented through their incorporation, as far as possible, taking into consideration their technical and professional skills and the provisions of the law and of the Lusaka Protocol.

16. The UNITA leaders installed in office in the various political, military and administrative structures of the State shall enjoy the privileges and benefits attached to their office, as prescribed by the legislation in force.

III. MODALITIES

Document relating to UNITA's participation in the central, provincial and local administration and in the diplomatic missions abroad, in accordance with article 1 of the modalities of national reconciliation.

2. Posts in the Provincial Administration

(i) Provincial Governors

1. Governor ol Uige
2. Governor of Lunda Sul
3. Governor of Kuando Kubango

(ii) Deputy Provincial Governors

1. Deputy Governor of Luanda
2 Deputy Governor of Bengo
3. Deputy-Governor of Kwanza Sul
4. Deputy Governor of Benguela
5 Deputy Governor of Huambo
6. Deputy Governor or Bic
7. Deputy Governor of Huila

3. Posts in the Local Administration

(i) Municipal Administrators

1 Administrator of Caimbambo
2. Administrator of Camacupa
3. Administrator of Gonuuembo
4 Administrator of Cassongue
5. Administrator ol Curoca
6. Administrator of Huambo
7. Administrator of Eciinha
8. Administrator of Gambos
9. Administrator of Lubnlo
10. Administrator of Liiqucmbo
11. Administrator of Lena
12. Administrator of Camucuio
13. Administrator of Mucaba
14. Administrator of Quitexe
15. Administrator of Calahola
16. Administrator of Chilembo
17. Administrator of Cuimba
18. Administrator of Luchazes
19. Administrator of Londuimbale
20. Administrator of Bembe
21. Administrator of Ganda
22. Administrator of Quiculungo
23. Administrator of Quilenda
24. Administrator of Cilai
25. Administrator of Ingombolas
26. Administrator of Cuito Cuanavale
27. Administrator of Banga
28. Administrator of Caluiiucmbc
29. Administrator of Puri
30. Administrator of Ouela

(ii) Deputy Municipal Administrators

1. Deputy Administrator of Dande
2. Deputy Administrator of Baia Farta
3. Deputy Administrator of Buco Zau
4. Deputy Administrator of Mavinga
5. Deputy Administrator of Samba Caju
6 Deputy Administrator of Gohmgo Alio
7 Deputy Administrator of Waco Kimgo
8. Deputy Administrator of Caluma
9. Deputy Administrator of Bailuiulo
10. Deputy Administrator of Gitchiungo
11. Deputy Administrator of Caconda
12. Deputy Administrator of Viana
(Note: Number 13 is missing from the accord)
14. Deputy Administrator of Cuchi
15. Deputy Administrator of Cazenga
16. Deputy Administrator of Cuilo
17. Deputy Administrator of Cangandaia
17. Deputy Administrator of Caombo
18 Deputy Administrator of Alto Zamhcze
19. Deputy Administrator of Namilic
20. Deputy Administrator of Macocola
21. Deputy Administrator of IJige
22 Deputy Administrator of Tomboco
23 Deputy Administrator of Balombo
24. Deputy Administrator of Cassinga
25. Deputy Administrator of Longonjo
26. Deputy Administrator of Amboim
27. Deputy Administrator of Andulo
28. Deputy Administrator of Miisscndc
29. Deputy Administrator of Luhango
30. Deputy Administrator of Dala
31. Deputy Administrator of Malanjc
32. Deputy Administrator of Bula Alumha
33 Deputy Administrator of Chinguar
34 Deputy Administrator of Cuvelai
35. Deputy Administrator of Lobno

(iii) Administrators of Communes

1. Administrator of Terra Nova
2 Administrator of Cassequal
3. Administrator of Demba Chio
4. Administrator of Tabi
5. Administrator of Cutio Fula
6. Administrator of Songo
7. Administrator of Caxinga
8. Administrator of Ngola Luige
9. Administrator of Ltiemba
10. Administrator of Quihuhu
11. Administrator of Lufico
12. Administrator of Quiquiemba
13. Administrator of Sanga
14. Administrator of Pambangala
15. Administrator of Quissenguc
16. Administrator of Quiciiha
17. Administrator of Dotera
18. Administrator of Chila
19. Administrator of Cliingoiigo
20. Administrator of Chicuma
21. Administrator of Calima
22. Administrator of Cacoma
23. Administrator of Cambândua
24. Administrator of Camera
25. Administrator of Caicie
26. Administrator of Soma Cuaiua
27. Administrator of Cassamha
28. Administrator of Mnangai
29. Administrator of Lumi Cassai
30. Administrator of Liiangue
31. Administrator of Capaia
32. Administrator of Calepi
33. Administrator of Ciilenda
34. Administrator of Galangue
35. Administrator of Calima
36. Administrator of Mucopc
37. Administrator of Lupiri
38. Administrator of Savaic
39. Administrator of Mane
40. Administrator of Cucio
41. Administrator of Umpulo
42. Administrator of Monte Belo
43. Administrator of Cuima
44. Administrator of Chiaca
45. Administrator of Chivaúlo
46. Administrator of Tempité
47. Administrator of Qiiimboa
48. Administrator of Cambamba
49. Administrator of Cuilo
50. Administrator of Miicusso
51. Administrator of Bolonguera
52. Administrator of lava Calabula
53. Administrator of Diiige
54. Administrator of Ciituile
55. Administrator of Muiiliango
56. Administrator of Massangano
57. Administrator of Kunjo
58. Administrator of Dala Cachibo
59. Administrator of Vicuniio
60. Administrator of Songuc
61. Administrator of Cilcco Cangola
62. Administrator of Bmibc
63. Administrator of Mala
64. Administrator of Bânualas
65. Administrator of Oui.ssanjc
66. Administrator of Calussinga
67. Administrator of Caiiulc
68. Administrator of Bolongonyo
69. Administrator of Luinga
70. Administrator of Quindcjc
71. Administrator of Quingombc
72. Administrator of Niiula
73. Administrator of Gamba
74. Administrator of Cassanjo
75. Administrator of Cucumbi

Implementation History

2002

Intermediate Implementation

The 2002 Luena Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) calls for continuing and completing the implementation of the 1994 Lusaka Protocol which calls for extensive local powersharing in the form of civilian administration quotas for UNITA officials. In all, 150 administrative positions are mentioned in the Lusaka text, although it is likely that the 4 governor positions and 7 deputy governor positions will receive the bulk of media attention. 

It is important to note that substantial progress was made regarding the appointment of UNITA officials to administrative positions in Angola prior to the Luena agreement. President Dos Santos showed a credible commitment to fulfilling this part of the Accord. State-run television in Angola ran a story on 16 March 1998 that standing governors and deputy governors were being relieved of their jobs throughout Angola so that Dos Santos could reappoint UNITA representatives to those posts, as agreed upon in the Lusaka Protocol. 

Angolan TV reported that “the president of the republic today issued two decrees relieving Manuel Goncalves Mwandumba, Serafim Ananito Alexandre, and Manuel Dala from their posts as governors of Uige, Lunda Sul, and Cuando Cubango Provinces, respectively. To fill the above posts, the head of state appointed 3 new governors proposed by UNITA. They were Joao Domingos Manzahila, Domingos Oliveira, and Jose Cativa, who will be governors of Uige, Lunda Sul, and Cuando Cubango Provinces, respectively. The president of the republic also appointed 7 deputy governors proposed by UNITA: Bernardo Prata, Americo Chimina, Moises Chivemba, Jose Soma Gaspar, Manuel Bunjo, Antonio Tonga, and Campos Tomas, deputy governors of Benguela, Huambo, Bie, Huila, Luanda, Cuanza Sul, and Bengo Provinces, respectively.”1 

As for the remaining municipal and local positions, Ibrahim Gambari, the Chairman of the Joint Commission on Implementation, made the following statement to the press in September, which demonstrates the government’s intentions and commitment at that time to making all of the required appointments: “Under the Lusaka Protocol, UNITA is entitled to designate four ministers, seven deputy ministers, six ambassadors, three provincial governors, seven vice governors, 30 municipal administrators, 35 vice municipal administrators, and 75 communal area administrators.”2

Regarding the remaining appointments, a UNITA representative made a statement to the press in September of 2002 which indicated that UNITA was satisfied by the level of UNITA appointments that were being made. According to the UNITA spokesperson, “among the issues to be decided were the appointment of ambassadors, provincial governors, and a couple of local administrators.”3

  • 1. “President Dos Santos Appoints New Governors Proposed By UNITA,” BBC Monitoring Africa, March 18, 1998.
  • 2. “Angola: Interior Minister Nando Denies Alleged Attempt to Stall Peace Process,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, September 18, 2002.
  • 3. “Angola: Consolidation of Peace Process a Priority, Says UN Envoy,” Africa News, September 17, 2002.
2003

Intermediate Implementation

In July of 2003, the Governor of Northern Uije Province Lazaro Xixima, Municipal Administer Jose Miranda, and Deputy Milunga Raimundo were all removed from their positions. UNITA officials Bernardo Francisco, Deputy Maria Carlota, and Mario Miguel Esperanca were appointed to the vacant posts.4

  • 4. “Uije: Local Governor Appoints Municipal Administrators,” Africa News, July 10, 2003.
2004

Full Implementation

In 2004, UNITA’s Secretary for Information, Adalberto da Costa Junior, told journalists that several tasks remained in the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol and mentioned the swearing in of UNITA administrators and remaining local level appointments. This statement suggests that most of the positions had been filled.5 

  • 5. “Angola: Government and UNITA Resume Bilateral Talks,” Africa News, January 16, 2004.
2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2011

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.