Civil Administration Reform: Chapultepec Peace Agreement

CHAPULTEPEC AGREEMENT (16 January 1992)

Chapter VII, Annex E: Restoration of Public Administration in Conflict Zones

With the entry into force of the cease-fire, public administration shall gradually be restored in conflict zones, in accordance with the following principles:

A. The full range of public services (such as water, electricity, telecommunications and roads) and other services provided by the State in such areas as agriculture, education and health shall be restored as soon as possible.

B. Mayors who, because of the armed conflict, have performed their functions on an itinerant basis shall take up residence in their respective municipalities as soon as possible, in close consultation with ONUSAL, in order to strengthen the process of détente and reconciliation.

C. The administration of justice shall be re-established in a manner appropriate to the purposes of this Agreement and, in particular, to the process of peace and reconciliation. Accordingly:

(a) The administration of justice shall be re-established as soon as possible, in close consultation with ONUSAL, in order to strengthen the process of détente and reconciliation.

(b) The Government shall take appropriate steps to ensure that the re-establishment of the administration of justice does not impair the effectiveness of the legislative or other measures adopted within the framework of this Agreement and of the peace and reconciliation process to guarantee members of FMLN the full exercise of their civil and political rights.

D. The restoration of public administration shall not be detrimental to either the existence or the functioning of the non-governmental organizations of a cultural, economic or social nature that have been established in conflict zones. As part of the process of peace and reconciliation, appropriate channels between these organizations and the respective authorities shall be maintained, with the support of ONUSAL.

Implementation History

1992

Intermediate Implementation

Efforts were made for the return of judges, mayors and governance to former conflict zones. The FMLN, with the support of some communities and NGOs, blocked the return of some judges and mayors. ONUSAL stepped in to facilitate open dialogue and help the process move forward.1 In May 1992, the El Salvadorian government announced a reconstruction plan aimed to upgrade the country's public services, including drinking water supplies, electricity, health and education, at a cost of more than 1.4 billion dollars.2 Also, an agreement was reached on 16 September 1992 to coordinate the return of all judges by the end of 1992.3

  • 1. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador,” United Nations Security Council (S/23999), May 26, 1992.
  • 2. "Cristiani Announces Reconstruction Plan in El Salvador," Agence France Presse, May 19, 1992.
  • 3. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador,” United Nations Security Council (S/24833), November 23, 1992.
1993

Intermediate Implementation

The returned mayors organized public town meetings to make plans for reconstruction in their communities and elect representatives to municipal reconstruction and development commissions.4

  • 4. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador,” United Nations Security Council (S/25812), May 21, 1993.
1994

Full Implementation

Mayors and judges were nearly 100% restored to former conflict zones. Other basic services, such as education and health care, were still lacking in some places. The Government cited resource scarcity as the reason for rather slow and incomplete action to restore civilian administration.5 After presidential elections in 1994, it can be said that most of the civil administration is restored. Nevertheless, some places still lacked water and electricity.

  • 5. “Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador,” United Nations Security Council (S/1994/1212), October 31, 1994.
1995

Full Implementation

Provisions related to civil administration reform were implemented by the end of 1994.

1996

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1997

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1998

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1999

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2000

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.