Civil Administration Reform: Arusha Accord - 4 August 1993

Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on the Repatriation of Rwandese Refugees and the Resettlement of Displaced Persons (9 June 1993)

Section 2: Administration and Security in the War Zones

Article 37

The administration entities established before the outbreak of war shall be reconstituted.

Implementation History

1993

No Implementation

The Arusha accord contained a provision for the reconstruction of the civil administration units in place before the conflict. No developments took place this year.

 

1994

Intermediate Implementation

According to the UN Secretary General’s report, the Rwandan government “required assistance in reestablishing system of administration, justice, police, finance, education and health and all other responsibilities a government must discharge”.1 In reestablishing the civil administration, the UNAMIR assisted the government. The southwestern zone was fully coordinated with the UNAMIR and the civil administration was restored. The government installed prefects at Kibuye, Gikongoro and Cyangugu.2

In September 1994, the Rwandan prime minister announced the eight-point program for national unity which included organizing the central, prefectural, communal, sector and cell administrations.3

  • 1. "UN Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/1994/924), August 3, 1994
  • 2. "UN Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/1994/1133), October 6, 1994.
  • 3. "The World Factbook-1996," CIA,1996, accessed September 11, 2011, http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact96/211.htm.
1995

Intermediate Implementation

After the establishment of a national unity government and the transitional national assembly, some progress was made in terms of reinstalling administrative entities. According to a report from the UN Secretary General, the administration was mostly restored throughout the country as of February. Nevertheless, the report highlights the challenges a lack of resources presents to running an effective administration.4

Once the civil administration was restored, UNAMIR II provided technical support to various administrative units to start-up operations.5

  • 4. "UN Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/1995/107),  February 6, 1995
  • 5. "UN Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council,"United Nation (S/1995/134), February 13, 1995.
1996

Intermediate Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

1997

Intermediate Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

1998

Intermediate Implementation

No developments observed this year. 

1999

Intermediate Implementation

For the first time, local officials were elected at the cell and sector levels.

2000

Intermediate Implementation

In 2000, the government announced plans for decentralization and administrative reform.

2001

Intermediate Implementation

In 2001, there was a reorganization of the sub-regional administrative units, moving from 154 communes led by burgomasters to 92 districts plus 14 towns led by mayors. Prefectures governed by prefects were changed to provinces led by mayors but governed by an elected district council. The first district council elections were held in June 2001. Numerous government responsibilities were given to the districts and their sub-units known as sectors and cells, and the districts were to become largely self-financing.

2002

Intermediate Implementation

Civil administration elections were held in March 2002.6

  • 6. Emmanuel Ndahimana, “Rwanda Decentralization Assessment,” Kigali: USAID, July 2002