Cease Fire: National Pact

TITLE II ON THE FINAL CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES AND ON THE SETTLEMENT OF QUESTIONS EMERGING FROM THE SITUATION OF ARMED CONFLICT

5. A permanent cease-fire will come into force at zero hour on the day the signature of the Pact.

6. Until the provisions of paragraph 7.A (below) can be put into effect, and under the supervision of the Ceasefire Commission, the forces of the two parties commit themselves to forbid any action or movement that might increase tension or lead to any incident.

7. Within sixty days following the signature of the Pact, a programme will be put into effect comprised of the following measures:

A -Within the framework of measures for restoring confidence, eliminating factors of insecurity, and the installation of a permanent state of security:

-all the combatants of the Unified Movements and Fronts of Azawad will be integrated into the various uniformed forces of the State, on an individual and voluntary basis and in accordance with criteria for assessing competence,

-special units of the armed forces will be created for one year, composed mainly of integrated combatants from the Unified Movements and Fronts of Azawad,

-an internal security corps will be instituted {Gendarmerie, Goum Guards, Police} composed of all sections of the local populations including integrated combatants from the Unified Movements and Fronts of Azawad, which will be provided to local authorities within their police powers,

-special units of the army will be created, open to all sections of the local populations, whose mission will be limited to the preservation of the integrity and external security of the country's frontiers.

Those dispositions which refer to the integration of all the combatants and members of the Movements and Fronts mentioned above, are contingent upon the return of the latter with their arms. This operation will be carried out in conjunction with the Ceasefire Commission;

The security and physical protection of the re-integrated combatants and members of the Movements and Fronts, as well as that of the repatriated displaced populations, will be entirely guaranteed;

B -In addition, and in the same spirit of restoring confidence, eliminating factors of insecurity and installing an atmosphere of permanent security, there will be a substantial, gradual and appropriate reduction of the armed forces presently in the North, leading to the withdrawal of the majority. This operation will be carried out in accordance with:

-the final ending of hostilities, according to the ceasefire determined in paragraph 5 above,

-the organisation of the security mechanisms and arrangements described in paragraph 7.A above,

-the redefinition of the objectives of the national army charged with future national defence: this implies a broad redeployment programme involving military installations and bases outside the urban areas, pastures and grazing areas as well as the transformation of certain army installations into centres and schools for military or para-military training, and the use of some redundant barrack facilities as centres for professional training.

8. The ceasefire and the various arrangements described in paragraph 7 above, will come into force under the supervision of the Ceasefire Commission, which will be composed and organised as follows:

A -The Ceasefire Commission will be composed of 10 representatives each from the two parties and the Mediator. Its mandate will be to put in place the arrangements defined in paragraph 7 above;

B -The Ceasefire Commission will replace the Truce Commission. It will take up its functions in Gao within 48 hours after the signing of the Pact. It will organise its work and its decentralised sub-Commissions;

C -For the period of sixty days, while putting into effect the application of the measures described in paragraph 7 above, the Ceasefire Commission will be in permanent session under the Chairmanship of the Mediator and with the permanent participation of its representatives. If need be, this period may be extended until all the above-mentioned measures are fully operational;

D -Beyond this period, the Ceasefire Commission will be in permanent session for one year, with the participation of Representatives of the two parties and under the Chairmanship of each in turn alternating by month, the first Chairmanship falling to the Movements and Fronts;

E -At the end of the first and second trimesters and the second semester following the signing of the Pact, the Ceasefire Commission will meet, each time under the Chairmanship of the Mediator. These special sessions will permit the examination and settlement of any possible dispute linked to its mission, with the final session serving to proclaim the dissolution of the Ceasefire Commission;

F -The costs, expenses and means of the Ceasefire Commission will be provided by the Government of the Republic of Mali, including the payment of individual allowances to representatives of the Movements to the said Commission.

Implementation History

1992

Intermediate Implementation

As agreed, the ceasefire agreement came into force at zero hours on 11 April, 1992. The Ceasefire Commission (CCF) was already in place to monitor the ceasefire agreement between the Malian state and the Azawad Unified Movements and Fronts (MFUA), which had been negotiated earlier on 6 January 1991. The CCF monitoring mechanism was still in place but because of the fall of the dictatorship on January 8, 1991- immediately after the ceasefire agreement- the Malian authorities lacked resources to support the CCF. The donors were not supportive of the CCF’s efforts. As negotiated, the CCF was expected to have 10 units in different parts of the country, yet only four became operational. This disparity was due to a lack of resources. Algerians did provide partial support to the CCF (vehicles and some fuel). Notwithstanding the limited resources, the CCF arrested some agitators for violating the ceasefire agreement. There were no violations of the ceasefire reported in 1992. 1

  • 1.   Robin-Edward Poulton and Ibrahim ag Youssouf, A Peace in Timbuktu: Democratic Governance, Development and African Peacemaking (United Nations Publication, 1998), 64-65.
1993

Intermediate Implementation

The CCF lacked resources, and out of the planned ten units, only four units were created and these were sporadically operational. Nevertheless, the CCF units were able to arrest agitators.2 Though hopes were high, a violation of ceasefire occurred when Malian soldiers apprehended three Tuareg refugees trying to return to Mali from Mauritania and stabbed them to death. Regular Malian troops also killed former Tuareg fighters who had joined the Malian army. 3

1994

Intermediate Implementation

A serious violation of the ceasefire agreement took place in 1994. On February 1994 Mouvement Populaire de l’Azawad (MPA) Col. Bilal Saloum was killed, allegedly by Armée révolutionnaire de liberation de l’Azawad (ARLA). This incident incited further violence between these two rebel movements. On June 15, 1994, three Malian Tuareg movements, the Islamic Arab Front of the Azaouad (FIAA), the ARLA, and the PFLA (Front populaire pour la libération de l’Azawad) called on their already integrated soldiers to quit the army and return to their bases in northern Mali. On June 20, 1994, the MUFA, (the group that had negotiated the National Pact on behalf of the Tuareg movement), said that 176 people had been killed by "forces of order" (police or soldiers) in northern Mali. The MUFA also contested that the deployment of the army in the northern part of the country was a violation of the spirit of the peace pact. The violence continued until October 23 1994, when the Tuaregs and the Malian government agreed to end the conflict within 6 months. 4

1995

Intermediate Implementation

Though they had committed in October of 1994 to end the conflict within six months, both sides continued to engage in violence. The Islamic Arab Front of Azawad was the only Tuareg group still thought to be in open conflict with the government. In January of 1995, the government army announced that they had captured the Ti-n-Edemba, headquarters of FIAA (Islamic Arab Front of Azawad). Tuareg rebels also launched three mortar bombs in Timbuktu 5. By the end of the year, however, violence had abated sufficiently. Most of the armed combatants had presented themselves and surrendered weapons in one of the four cantonment sites. 6

  • 5. Ibid.
  • 6.  Robin-Edward Poulton and Ibrahim ag Youssouf, A Peace in Timbuktu, 77.
1996

Full Implementation

After 1995, sporadic violence was reported but these incidents did not undermine the 1992 National Pact. 

1997

Full Implementation

No ceasefire violation reported.

1998

Full Implementation

No ceasefire violation reported.

1999

Full Implementation

No ceasefire violation reported.

2000

Full Implementation

No ceasefire violation reported.

2001

Full Implementation

No ceasefire violation reported.