Cease Fire: Luena Memorandum of Understanding

Chapter 1: Subject and Principles of the Memorandum of Understanding

1.1 SUBJECT

1.2. The objective of the Memorandum of Understanding is collaboration between the parties for the resolution of negative military factors posing an obstacle to the Lusaka Protocol, and the creation of conditions for its definitive conclusion.

2 - FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

2.2. The parties reiterate their unequivocal acceptance of the validity of pertinent political-juridical instruments, namely the Lusaka Protocol and UN Security Council resolutions related to the Angolan peace process.

3 - CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES AND PENDING MILITARY ISSUES UNDER THE TERMS OF THE LUSAKA PROTOCOL

A) CEASE-FIRE

3.1 The parties reiterate their engagement in the scrupulous fulfillment of their commitments and obligations relating to the task of reestablishing the cease-fire (in the spirit foreseen in Annex 3, Point II. 1 of the Work Agenda - Military Issues I of the Lusaka Protocol).

3.2 In this sense, the Government, through the General Staff of the Angolan Armed Forces, and UNITA Military Forces, through the High General Staff, release and carry out a declaration recognizing a cease-fire aimed at ending the armed conflict in order to achieve peace and national reconciliation.

3.3 The task of reestablishing a cease-fire encompasses the following:

a) The cessation of all military actions throughout the country and the end of hostile propaganda.

b) The halting of all force movements in the reinforcement or occupation of new military positions, as well as the termination of all acts of violence against civilian populations and the destruction of property.

c) Regular information on the situation regarding positioning of units and all other paramilitary elements of UNITA Military Forces in probable zones or areas of military tension.

d) The guarantee of protection for people and their possessions, of resources and public assets, as well as the free circulation of persons and goods.

Lusaka Protocol: Annex 3: Agenda item II.1: Military issues (I) 1:

1. The re-established cease-fire consists of the cessation of hostilities between the Government of the Republic of Angola and UNITA with a view to attaining peace throughout the national territory.

2. The re-established cease-fire shall be total and definitive throughout the national territory.

3. The re-established ceasefire shall guarantee the free circulation of persons and goods throughout the national territory.

4. Overall supervision, control and verification of the reestablished cease-fire will be the responsibility of the United Nations acting within the framework of its new mandate, with the participation of the Government and UNITA.

5. The re-established cease-fire shall include the cessation of all hostile propaganda between the Government of the Republic of Angola and UNITA, at both the national and the international level.

Implementation History

2002

Full Implementation

In 2001 and early 2002, after several years of renewed civil war following the failed 1994 Lusaka Protocol, the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA) closed in on Jonas Savimbi, the leader of UNITA. After destroying most of the defenses surrounding the leader, the number of defections from Savimbi reached an all-time high in early February and the army reported that Savimbi was near the end.1 

On 22 February 2002, the FAA forces killed Jonas Savimbi, the leader of UNITA. The Angolan government immediately called on all UNITA troops to lay down their weapons and surrender.2 

On 30 March 2002, FAA leader G. S. Nunda and UNITA leader Kamorteiro signed an agreement in the city of Luena, ending the civil war.3 

UNITA troops began to travel to the assembly points identified in the Luena Agreement on the same day the agreement was officially signed. UNITA General Samuel Chiwale, a member of the Supreme Command of UNITA forces, instructed his troops to report to the assembly points in the Luena agreement immediately.4 

There were no reports of armed conflict or organized violence following the Luena Agreement in 2002.

  • 1. “Savimbi “Close to the End” as Government Forces Win More Victories,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, February 19, 2002.
  • 2. “Angola's Government Says Rebel Leader Savimbi Dead,” Agence France Presse, February 22, 2002.
  • 3. “Angola Signs Ceasefire with UNITA Rebels,” Reuters News Agency, March 30, 2002.
  • 4. “UNITA Forces in Northern Front Begin Implementing Luena Accord,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, April 4, 2002.
2003

Full Implementation

There were no reports of armed conflict, organized violence, or ceasefire violations in 2003.5

In April, Angolans nationally celebrated one year of peace.6

On 9 April, Professor Ibrahim A. Gambari, Under-Secretary-General and Special Adviser on Africa, remarked on the extraordinary turn-around in Angola: “From the moment that cease-fire was declared in March 2002 till today, no single shot has been fired and no skirmishes have been reported in violations of the cease-fire. The process of disarmament of UNITA was completed and members of UNITA forces were integrated into the national army and police.”7

  • 5. “U.N. Taking Active Role in Rebuilding Angola as Ceasefire Holds,” State Department, April 10, 2003.
  • 6. “Angola Celebrates One Year of Peace,” Xinhua General News Service, April 4, 2003.
  • 7. “Angola: Rebuilding the Nation: National Reconciliation and Peace,” Africa News, April 9, 2003.
2004

Full Implementation

No large scale violence reported this year. 

2005

Full Implementation

No large scale violence reported this year. 

2006

Full Implementation

No large scale violence reported this year. 

2007

Full Implementation

No large scale violence reported this year. 

2008

Full Implementation

No large scale violence reported this year. 

2009

Full Implementation

No large scale violence reported this year. 

2010

Full Implementation

No large scale violence reported this year. 

2011

Full Implementation

In April 2011, Angola celebrated almost a decade without civil war. In the six years following the 2002 peace deal, Angola’s GDP rose 260 percent with an annual growth rate of 14 percent.8

  • 8. “Angola Celebrates 11 Years of Peace,” The Korea Herald, April 7, 2013.