Cease Fire: General Peace Agreement for Mozambique

Protocol IV.VI(i)

2. Cease-fire Commission

(a) On E-Day, the cease-fire Commission (CCF) shall be established and begin its functions under the direct supervision of CSC;

(b) CCF shall be composed of representatives of the Government, RENAMO, the invited countries and the United Nations. CCF shall be presided over by the United Nations;

(c) CCF shall be based in Maputo and shall be structured as follows:

- Regional offices (North, Centre and South);

- Offices at the assembly and billeting locations of the two Parties.

(d) CCF shall have, inter alia, the function of implementing the demobilisation process, with the following tasks:

- Planning and organization;

- Regulation of procedures;

- Direction and supervision;

- Registration of troops to be demobilised and issue of the respective identity cards;

- Collection, registration and custody of weapons, ammunition, explosives, equipment, uniforms and documentation; destroying or deciding on the other disposition of weapons, ammunition, explosives, equipment, uniforms and documentation as agreed by the Parties;

- Medical examinations;

- Issue of demobilisation certificates.

(e) The United Nations shall assist in the implementation, verification and monitoring of the entire demobilisation process.

Protocol VI.I Cessation of the armed conflict:

1. The cessation of the armed conflict (CAC) is a brief, dynamic and irreversible process of predetermined duration which must be implemented throughout the national territory of Mozambique.

The implementation of the process shall be the responsibility of the Government of the Republic of Mozambique and of RENAMO, acting within the framework of the cease-fire Commission (CCF). The CCF is answerable to the CSC, the organ responsible for the overall political supervision of the cease-fire. The CCF shall be composed of representatives of the Government and of RENAMO, representatives of countries accepted by them and a representative of the United Nations, who shall preside.

2. The CCF, which shall be structured as stipulated in Protocol IV, paragraph VI.i.2, shall have the following functions:

- to plan, verify and guarantee the implementation of the cease-fire rules;

- to set itineraries for the movement of forces, in order to reduce the risk of incidents;

- to organize and implement mine-clearing operations;

- to analyse and verify the accuracy of the statistics provided by the Parties on troop strength, arms and military equipment

- to receive, analyse and rule on complaints of possible cease-fire violations;

- to ensure the necessary co-ordination with organs of the United Nations verification system;

- the functions provided for in sections II, III and VI of Protocol IV.

3. The CAC shall begin on E-Day and end on E-Day + 180.

4. The CAC consists of 4 (four) phases:

- cease-fire;
- separation of forces;
- concentration of forces;
- demobilisation.

5. The cease-fire

The Parties agree that:

(a) the cease-fire shall enter into force on E-Day

E-Day is the day on which the General Peace Agreement is adopted by the Assembly of the Republic and incorporated into Mozambican law. The deployment of United Nations personnel in Mozambican territory to verify the cease-fire shall begin the same day;

b) As of E-Day, neither of the Parties shall carry out any hostile act or operation by means of forces or individuals under its control. Accordingly, they may not:

- carry out any kind of attack by land, sea or air;
- organize patrols or offensive manoeuvres;
- occupy new positions;
- lay mines and prevent mine-clearing operations;
- interfere with military communications;
- carry out any kind of reconnaissance operations;
- carry out acts of sabotage and terrorism;
- acquire or receive lethal equipment
- carry out acts of violence against the civilian population;
- restrict or prevent without justification the free movement of persons and property;
- carry out any other military activity which, in the opinion of the CCF and the United Nations, might jeopardise the cease-fire.
In performing their functions, the CCF and the United Nations shall enjoy complete freedom of movement throughout the territory of Mozambique;

(c) On E-Day, the United Nations shall begin official verification of compliance with the undertaking described in paragraph (b), investigating any alleged violation of the cease-fire. Any duly substantiated violation shall be reported by the United Nations at the appropriate level;

(d) During the period between the signing of the General Peace Agreement and E-Day, the two Parties agree to observe a complete cessation of hostilities and of the activities described in paragraph (b), in order to allow the United Nations to deploy its personnel in the territory to verify all aspects of the CAC as of E-Day.

6. Separation of forces

The Parties agree that:

(a) The purpose of the separation of forces is to reduce the risk of incidents, to build trust and to allow the United Nations effectively to verify the commitments assumed by the Parties;

(b) The separation of forces shall last 6 (six) days, from E-Day to E-Day + 5;

(c) During this period, the FAM shall proceed to the barracks, bases, existing semi-permanent facilities and other locations listed in annex A;

(d) During the same period, the RENAMO forces shall proceed to the locations listed in annex B;

(e) The locations listed in the above-mentioned annexes shall be those agreed to between the Parties and the United Nations no later than 7 (seven) days after the signing of the General Peace Agreement. The lists shall specify the name and site of the 29 assembly and billeting points for the FAM and the 20 such points for the RENAMO forces;

(f) Accordingly, by 2400 hours on E-Day + 5, the FAM and the RENAMO forces must be in the locations listed in annexes A and B respectively;

(g) All movements shall take place under the supervision and co-ordination of the United Nations. Neither Party may prevent or jeopardise, the movements of the other Party's forces. The United Nations shall supervise all the locations listed in annexes A and B and shall in principle be present 24 hours a day in each of those locations as of E-Day;

(h) During this period of 6 (six) days, no force or individual shall be able to leave assembly and billeting points except to seek medical care or other humanitarian reasons, and then only with the authorisation and under the supervision of the United Nations. In each location, the commander of the troops shall be responsible for maintaining order and discipline and for ensuring that the troops conduct themselves in accordance with the principles and the spirit of this Protocol.

7. Concentration of forces

The Parties agree that:

(a) The concentration of forces shall begin on E-Day + 6 and end on E-Day + 30;

(b) During this period, the FAM shall concentrate in the normal peacetime barracks and military bases listed in annex C;

(c) During the same period, the RENAMO forces shall go to the assembly and billeting points listed in annex D;

(d) All movements shall take place under the supervision and co-ordination of the United Nations and shall be subject to the same conditions as those established for the separation of forces;

(e) All the main military facilities of the two Parties which cannot be moved to assembly and billeting points, such as military hospitals, logistical units and training facilities, shall be subject to verification in situ. These locations must also be specified no later than 7 (seven) days after the signing of the General Peace Agreement;

(f) Each assembly and billeting point shall be run by a military commander appointed by the corresponding Party. The military commander is responsible for maintaining the order and discipline of troops, distributing food and ensuring liaison with the organs for the verification and supervision of the cease-fire. In the event of an incident or a cease-fire violation, the military commander must take immediate steps to avoid an escalation and put a stop to the incident or violation. Any incident or violation shall be reported to the senior level of the command structure and to the cease-fire verification and supervision organs;

(g) Arrangements for the security of each assembly and billeting point shall be agreed between the corresponding commander and the CCF, with the knowledge of the United Nations. The military unit stationed in each location shall provide its own security. Each assembly and billeting point shall cover an area with a maximum radius of five kilometres. Individual weapons and the necessary ammunition shall be distributed only to the security staff of assembly and billeting points;
(h) Each location must have the capacity to accommodate at least 1,000 soldiers.

8. Demobilisation

Shall take place as stipulated in section VI of Protocol IV.

9. Formation of the FADM

Shall take place as stipulated in section I of Protocol IV.

10. Miscellaneous provisions.

(a) The Parties agree to the following:

1. To supply the United Nations with complete inventories of their troop strength, arms, ammunition, mines and other explosives on E-Day-6, E-Day, E-Day + 6, E-Day + 30 and, thereafter, every 15 days;
2. To allow the United Nations to verify the aspects and data referred to in the preceding paragraph;
3. As of E-Day + 31, all collective and individual weapons, including weapons on board aircraft and ships, shall be stored in warehouses under United Nations control;
4. (a) As of E-Day + 6, troops shall be able to leave their respective assembly and billeting points only with the authorisation and under the supervision of the United Nations;

(b) As of E-Day, the naval and air force components of the FAM shall refrain from carrying out any offensive operation. They may carry out only such non-hostile missions as are necessary for the discharge of their duties unrelated to the armed conflict. All air force flight plans must be communicated in advance to the United Nations. Aircraft may not, in any case, be armed and may not overfly assembly and billeting points,

(c) The foreign forces currently present in the territory of Mozambique must also respect the agreed cease-fire as of E-Day. In accordance with section II of Protocol IV, on E-Day the Government of the Republic of Mozambique shall communicate to the United Nations and the CSC the plans for the withdrawal of foreign troops from Mozambican territory. These plans shall include the numbers and equipment of such troops. the withdrawal shall begin on E-Day +6 and end on E-Day +30. All movements must be co-ordinated and verified by the CCF;

(d) The Parties agree that, as of E-Day, they shall end all hostile propaganda, both internal and external;

(e) Border control as of E-Day shall be provided by the immigration services and the police.

Implementation History

1992

Intermediate Implementation

The General Peace Agreement for Mozambique had a provision for UN peacekeeping. As soon as the peace agreement was signed and before the establishment of the United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ), the interim Special Representative and a team of 21 military observers drawn from existing United Nations peacekeeping missions arrived in Mozambique on 15 October 1992.1

Before the arrival of the UN military observers, Radio Mozambique in the capital of Maputo reported that “the Mozambique Armed Forces (FAM) and elements of the Mozambique National Resistance (MNR) had clashed for the first time since the signing of the peace agreement when MNR forces attacked a FAM position at Charre, about 10 km from Mutarara in Tete Province, on 14th October”.2

A first group of 10 UN cease-fire observers from the USA, France, and Russia arrived in the capital. A document cited by 'Noticias' stated that the Supervision and Control Commission (CSC), which was established in November 1992 as per the General Peace Agreement, regarded the retaking of Lugela by government forces as a clear violation of the cease-fire accord. The document, which was issued by the CSC on December 2, urged the Mozambican government to honor the accord and adhere to the structures that had been created to uphold the peace process.3

There were no further violations of the cease-fire agreement.

  • 1. “Mozambique: United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ),” UN ONUMOZ, accessed September 2, 2010, http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/onumoz.htm.
  • 2. “Mozambique Government and Rebel Forces Clash in Tete; UN Observers Arrive,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts/The Monitoring Report, October 16, 1992.
  • 3. “Mozambique Commission Says Recapture of Lugela Was Violation of Peace Accord,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, December 10, 1992.
1993

Full Implementation

The government team of the CSC sent a note to UN Operations in Mozambique in response to a RENAMO communique signed by Raul Domingos, head of the RENAMO team of the CSC. In the communique, RENAMO stated that “our military strategists will select a strategic target whose destruction will mean an end to the Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO)”. The RENAMO communiqué was a violation of the spirit of the peace agreement.4

However, no violation of the cease-fire was reported. Both the government and the rebels reiterated that they no longer wanted violence.

  • 4. “Mozambique: Government Notifies UN about "Serious" MNR Violations,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, August 7, 1993.
1994

Full Implementation

The cease-fire was successfully implemented during the transitional period. Since the 1994 elections, no significant political violence had been reported. However, tensions between the government and the opposition still existed. Criminal activities were not a rare occurrence, but political violence was very rare.

1995

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1996

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1997

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1998

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1999

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2000

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.