Cease Fire: Comprehensive Peace Agreement

5.1. Ending of military action and mobilisation of armed personnel

6.1. On the basis of the historic decisions reached between the Seven Political Parties and the CPN (Maoist) on November 8, 2006, we hereby declare that the armed conflict ongoing in the country since 1996 has been brought to an end and that the current cease- fire between the Government and the Maoists has been made permanent.

6.2. The decisions of the meeting of the summit leaders of the Seven Political Parties and the CPN (Maoist) held on November 8, 2006 shall be the main policy foundation for long-term peace.

Implementation History

2006

Intermediate Implementation

At the behest of the unified Seven Political Parties in the Parliament (SPA), who opposed the direct rule of the King, the Maoists declared a unilateral ceasefire in April 2006. This allowed them to join the non-violent opposition movement. Peace negotiations followed, and on May 26, 2006, the government and the Maoists reached an agreement on the 25-Point Ceasefire Code of Conduct. Between the signing of the Ceasefire Code of Conduct and the signing of the CPA, a number of violations of the Code of Conduct were reported. According to the Secretary General’s report to the Security Council, a total of 154 ceasefire violations were recorded. These were mostly perpetrated by new recruits from the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), which is the armed wing of the Maoist party.1 When the CPA was signed on November 22, 2006, the Joint Mentioning Coordination Committee (JMCC) replaced the Ceasefire Monitoring Committee, which had been established in the Ceasefire Code of Conduct. The JMCC was established by the Agreement on Monitoring of the Management of Arms and Armies (AMMAA). The committee was comprised of representatives from both sides, and was chaired by the UN. The AMMAA established the Joint Monitoring Teams (JMTs) to assist in monitoring the cessation of hostilities. The AMMAA agreement was signed on December 6, 2006.2

 A few violations of the ceasefire were reported after the signing of the CPA on the 22nd of November 2006. According to one such report, an Inspector of Armed Police Force and a Nepali Army Lieutenant took inappropriate action towards six Maoist cadres, including females, in the Mahottari district. In the clash, five Maoists and two policemen were injured. On the 26th of November 2006, Maoists raided a police post in the Banke district and stole nine rounds of bullets and some cash. The Maoist cadres were also involved in a skirmish in the office of District Education in the Gulmi District. Another incident was reported when Maoist cadres disrupted a Council Meeting in the Nepaljung Municipality Office in the west. Similarly, the Maoists combatants, cantoned at the Chulachuli Cantonment in Eastern Nepal, came out with weapons that were supposed to be re-stored in a container.3

  • 1. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/2006/1007), December 20, 2006.
  • 2. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/2007/235), April 26, 2007; "Agreement on Monitoring of the Management of Arms and Armies," Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction, December 8, 2006, accessed July 22, 2010, http://www.peace.gov.np/arvhives-13-np.html.
  • 3. "Nepal’s Peace Process on the Verge of Failure," Conflict Study Center (Situation Report 19), December 20, 2006.
2007

Intermediate Implementation

The United Nations Mission in Nepal (UNMIN), established by the Security Council resolution 1740 (2007), started to work in January 2007. It had various mandates, one of which was monitoring the ceasefire. As a tactical shift, the Maoists formed an unarmed paramilitary force called the Young Communist League (YCL), which was directed by the Maoist Central Committee. The YCL was created in April 2007, in order to advance the Maoists’ semi-militant activities on the streets. Formation of the YCL alone would not violate any agreement because any party can form a youth wing. But YCL activities violated the previous agreements including ceasefire and the AMMAA agreement of December 6th, 2006. As such, the Maoists did not fully renounce violence. They continued the use of intimidation, extortion, and abduction. In the August 2007 plenum, the Maoists adopted a more aggressive stance in the face of the perceived failure of the peace process to deliver their desired result. In the Tarai region, the Maoists and the armed outfits were engaged in violent incidents.4 Despite all these concerns, the ceasefire held with no major violation by either army. There was no resumption of an armed conflict.

  • 4. "Nepal’s Fragile Peace Process," International Crisis Group, Asia Briefing N°68, 2007.
2008

Intermediate Implementation

Some violations of the ceasefire agreement were reported. During this time it was reported that some of the Maoist combatants stationed in various cantonments were leaving the cantonments to participate in activities related to the Constituent Assembly elections. The Maoist-affiliated Young Communist League (YCL) was also involved in various violent activities. Other skirmishes were reported that indicted the Maoists for using violence in the Tarai region.5 Nevertheless, there was no resumption of an armed conflict.

  • 5. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations (S/2008/313), May 12, 2008.
2009

Full Implementation

While the YCL’s intimidation and use of violence remained a concern, both armies generally upheld the ceasefire. A large number of armed outfits were reported operating in the eastern hill region and the Tarai region, but they are denounced as criminals or unregulated paramilitary groups. According to a report, at least 69 armed groups were engaged in violent activities as of March 29th.6

  • 6. "Govt categorizes 70 outfits as ‘criminal groups’," Kathmandu Post, September 6, 2009.
2010

Full Implementation

Full implementation reached in 2009. No reversal reported.

2011

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2012

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2013

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2014

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2015

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.