Cease Fire: Agreement Between the Republic Niger Government and the ORA

OUAGADOUGOU ACCORD (OCTOBER 9, 1994)

Section V. The Truce

Clause 11

In order to permit the application of this present Agreement in all serenity a truce of three (3) months, renewable by tacit renewal, will be observed by the two Parties. This truce will come into force starting from the date of the signing of the present document at zero hours (Niamey time).

During the truce the units of the “Forces Armées Nigériennes (F. A. N.)” (Nigerien Armed Forces) and the combatants of the CAR must cease all offensive actions and refrain from all activities susceptible of creating incidents of a kind that might compromise peace.

Clause 12

The Government of the Republic of Niger engages to take all the necessary measures to eradicate the residual insecurity in order to provide free circulation of persons and goods.

To be able to do so,
- it engages to put an end to the action of all groups or armed bands (militias, brigades, etc.) susceptible of aggravating the climate of insecurity and of compromising the peace efforts.
- it engages furthermore during the truce, together with the CRA and according to the forms that will be defined, with one accord, with the help of the contact group, to check the action of armed individuals isolated in the zone concerned by the conflict.

1995 PEACE AGREEMENT

Section III. Restoration of Peace and National Reconciliation

Clause 11

A permanent cease-fire will come into force at zero hours (Niamey time) on the day after the signing of the present Agreement.

Implementation History

1995

Intermediate Implementation

Several acts of spoiler violence took place following the April accord, but they received due attention. On 26 June 1995, 13 people died in an ambush attack on a meeting site in Arlit in northern Niger, attended by the Tuareg representatives of the ORA, the Organization of the Armed Resistance, and a special mission led by the French and Burkinabe mediators. The high commissioner for the restoration of peace in Niger also attended the meeting. In the meeting the ORA demanded the disarmament of the Arab militia, officially known as the Tassara Self-Defense Group. The ORA wanted to distance itself from the residual banditry, which was increasing in the north. This suggests a strong commitment to the ceasefire.1

Some clashes occurred in the north of the country on 22 November between the Niger armed forces and members of the former armed Tuareg rebel movement, which led to a protest from the ORA. The ORA decided to withdraw from the Special Peace Committee, accusing the government of violating the provisions of the peace accord signed in Niamey in April 1995. The government blamed the ORA for violating the cease-fire. The government specifically accused the ORA of not respecting the commitments made in Niamey regarding the joint patrol to be stationed in the north of the country.2 At least one ORA fighter was killed in the clash.3 As such, violations of ceasefire occurred in the transitional phase but both sides were making progress in the peace process. 

  • 1. "Niger; Tuareg group demands inquiry into attack at meeting with mediators," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, July 10, 1995.
  • 2. "Niger; Government and Tuareg rebels resume peace talks in Niamey," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, December 15, 1995.
  • 3. BBC Monitoring Service: Africa, November 30 1995.
1996

Full Implementation

No violations of the ceasefire reported. The Armed Resistance Organization (ORA) and the Coordination of the Armed Resistance (CRA) met for four days in Niamey on 29 May 1996 and decided to “close ranks.” In a statement signed by chairmen from both movements, both sides agreed to form a technical negotiating committee which would also conduct the forthcoming negotiations with the government on the implementation of the 2 April 1995 agreement between the Niger government and Tuareg rebels. The armed resistance urged the government to implement strictly the clauses of the peace agreement.4 

  • 4. "Niger; Two Tuareg movements decide to "close ranks"," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, May 30, 1996.
1997

Full Implementation

The ceasefire between the ORA and the Niger government was upheld in 1997. The Union of Armed Resistance Force (UARF), which was another faction of the Tuareg movement in the wake of 1994 peace agreement, started a conflict in 1997. The UARF signed a peace agreement on 28 November 1997 under the auspice of the Algerian government.5

  • 5. "Niger government and armed opposition sign peace accord in Algiers," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, December 1, 1997.
1998

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1999

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2000

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.