Cease Fire: Accra Peace Agreement

Re-committing ourselves to the scrupulous observance of the Ceasefire and Cessation of Hostilities Agreement signed at Accra, Ghana on 17th June, 2003, which constitutes an integral part of this Peace Agreement and is thereby appended as Annex I to the present Agreement;

PART TWO: CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES: ARTICLE II: CEASEFIRE

The armed conflict between the present Government of Liberia (GOL), the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD) and the Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL) is hereby ended with immediate effect. Accordingly, all the Parties to the Ceasefire Agreement shall ensure that the ceasefire established at 0001 hours on 18th June, 2003, results in the observation of a total and permanent cessation of hostilities forthwith.

ARTICLE III: CEASEFIRE MONITORING

1. The Parties call on ECOWAS to immediately establish a Multinational Force that will be deployed as an Interposition Force in Liberia, to secure the ceasefire, create a zone of separation between the belligerent forces and thus provide a safe corridor for the delivery of humanitarian assistance and free movement of persons.

2. The mandate of the ECOWAS Interposition Force shall also include the following:

a. Facilitating and monitoring the disengagement of forces as provided under Article V of this Agreement;

b. Obtaining data and information on activities relating to military forces of the parties to the Ceasefire Agreement and coordinating all military movements;

c. Establishing conditions for the initial stages of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) activities;

d. Ensuring respect by the Parties for the definitive cessation of hostilities and all other aspects of the Ceasefire Agreement;

e. Ensuring the security of senior political and military leaders;

f. Also ensuring the security of all personnel and experts involved in the implementation of this Agreement in collaboration with all parties;

g. Monitoring the storage of arms, munitions and equipment, including supervising the collection, storage and custody of battlefield or offensive armament in the hands of combatants.

3. The Joint Monitoring Committee (JMC) established under the terms of the Ceasefire Agreement, and composed of representatives of ECOWAS, the UN, AU, ICGL and Parties to the Ceasefire Agreement shall continue to supervise and monitor the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement.

4. Prior to the deployment of the International Stabilisation Force, a representative of ECOWAS shall chair the JMC.

5. The JMC shall:

a. Resolve disputes concerning implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement, including the investigation of any alleged violation and also recommend remedial action for confirmed ceasefire violations.

b. Submit for approval, its recommendations to the Implementation Monitoring Committee (IMC) referred to under Article XXVIII(2) and (3) in this Agreement which is seized with the responsibility of monitoring the implementation of this Peace Agreement.

6. The Parties shall provide the JMC with any relevant information on the organisation, equipment and locations of their forces, and such information will be kept confidential.

ANNEX 1: AGREEMENT ON CEASEFIRE AND CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES

9. Ceasefire Violations. Violations of a ceasefire shall include the following:

a. All attacks by any of the parties against the locations of the other parties, as well as acts of sabotage, laying of mines, hostage taking and seizure of material belonging to one of the other parties;

b. Harassment, attacks, hostage taking, and arrest of combatants as well as seizure of arms and equipment belonging to another party;

c. Harassment, attacks, hostage taking or unlawful arrest of civilians and personnel of humanitarian agencies as well as seizure of properties of individuals and corporations;

d. Attempts to occupy new ground locations and the movement of military forces and resources from one location to another, without prior agreement of the JMC;

e. Any importation or resupply of arms, munitions and other weapons of war by the Government of Liberia (GOL), Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), and the Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL);

f. Obstruction of the activities of the JVT, JMC, ISF and Humanitarian Agencies as described in paragraphs 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 above.

g. All hostile propaganda amongst the Parties, including defamatory, untruthful or derogatory statements, both within and outside the country;

h. Military movements within 20 kilometers of contact lines including reconnaissance and reinforcements, except as authorised by the JMC;

i. Recruitment of combatants.

10. Communication. Parties shall ensure that the terms of this ceasefire agreement and written orders requiring compliance are immediately communicated to all their forces. Terms of the agreement shall concurrently be communicated to the civil population via print, electronic and other media.

11. Amendments. The agreement may be amended by written agreement of the parties.

12. Entry into Force. The agreement shall enter into force upon signature.

Implementation History

2003

Intermediate Implementation

A ceasefire was signed on 17 August 2003. Sporadic fighting between the LURD and government forces continued in the Monrovia area through December 2003. The Joint Monitoring Committee (JMC) began meeting on a weekly basis on 1 October 2003. According to the Secretary General, the JMC "has been a valuable mechanism for monitoring the ceasefire, maintaining dialogue among the armed groups, and facilitating contacts between UNMIL and the ground commanders of these groups." The JMC collected information on armed groups' personnel and locations, and the government provided information on the structure and location of the 12,000 troops. The LURD and MODEL provided only basic organizational data.1

  • 1. "Secretary General's Report to the UN Security Council," United Nations Security Council (S/2003/1175), December 15, 2003.
2004

Intermediate Implementation

The terms of the ceasefire were generally upheld, though sporadic violations occurred around Monrovia that involved the continued harassment of civilians. Though LURD and MODEL were slow to provide information regarding the lists and locations of combatants and military equipment to the JMC, the disarmament and demobilization of forces was completed on 31 October 2004. At this time, the JMC had fulfilled its mandate, after having met a total of 14 times during the year to monitor the compliance with the ceasefire agreement.2

  • 2. "Secretary General's Reports to the UN Security Council," United Nations Security Council (S/2004/229; S/2004/430; S/2004/725; S/2004/972), March 22, 2004; May 26, 2004; September 10, 2004; December 17, 2004.
2005

Full Implementation

The first round of elections was held on the scheduled date of 11 October 2005. These elections were held for candidates vying for seats in the Senate and House of Representatives, as well as the candidates running for President. In the elections, “22 registered political parties, two alliances and one coalition, which put forward some 205 Senate and 513 House of Representatives candidates, and the 22 presidential candidates, with their running mates, conducted their political campaigns in a generally peaceful manner.”3 This was a significant post-conflict development in Liberia.

The post-conflict elections in 2005 moved Liberia from a transitional to a normalized political process. This suggests that there were no reports of any major ceasefire violations.

  • 3. "Secretary General’s Report to the Security Council," United Nations Security Council (S/2005/764), December 7, 2005.
2006

Full Implementation

The post-conflict elections in 2005 moved Liberia from a transitional to a normalized political process. This suggests that the ceasefire provision of the agreement was respected.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2011

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2012

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.