Cease Fire: Accord de paix et de la reconciliation nationale

Agreement for Peace and National Reconciliation-1994

SECTION VIII: TRANSFORMATION OF FRUD INTO A POLITICAL PARTY

1) Once the present Peace agreement has been signed, FRUD will become a legal political party. It will therefore abandon the armed fight and will fully participate in the national political life, defending its ideas with peaceful means and the Government engages to accept it.

(Note: Agreement does not specifically mention ceasefire but suggest that the FRUD as well as the government will refrain from use of violence)

Implementation History

1995

Intermediate Implementation

In the 26 December 1994 peace agreement, “[t]he two sides agreed to an immediate ceasefire and the revision of the Constitution and of electoral lists before the next elections. The agreement also provided for an alliance between the faction and the ruling Popular Rally for Progress for ‘the management of affairs’, taken by many to herald the possible inclusion of FRUD members in the government.” The agreement, however, was condemned by a FRUD faction led by Ahmed Dini Ahmed (FRUD-AD) as a “betrayal” of the organization's aims.1

  • 1. "Djibouti," Keesing's Record of World Events (Volume 41), January 1995, 40348.
1996

Intermediate Implementation

The Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) led by Ahmed Ougoureh Kible and Ali Mohamed Daoud did not return to conflict with the Government in 1995. The FRUD-AD engaged in some violence, but the violence did not escalate to the level of minor war, though it produced some ‘no-go areas’. 

1997

Intermediate Implementation

The FRUD-AD engaged in some violence, but the violence did not escalate to the level of minor war, though it produced some ‘no-go areas’. 

1998

Intermediate Implementation

The FRUD-AD engaged in some violence, but the violence did not escalate to the level of minor war, though it produced some ‘no-go areas’. 

1999

Intermediate Implementation

The original group -- Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (FRUD) -- led by Ahmed Ougoureh Kible and Ali Mohamed Daoud did not return to conflict in 1999. The Government and FRUD-AD fought a minor war in 1999. The UCDP conflict data program reported about 285 battle related deaths for the year. FRUD-AD and the government initiated negotiations and the conflict terminated in December 1999.2

  • 2. "UCDP Conflict Encyclopedia," Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
2000

Intermediate Implementation

A ceasefire agreement was signed between the government and the FRUD-AD on Feb. 7, 2000. 

2001

Intermediate Implementation

A peace agreement was signed with FRUD-AD on May 12, 2001. 

2002

Full Implementation

Ceasefire was maintained.   

2003

Full Implementation

Ceasefire was maintained.   

2004

Full Implementation

Ceasefire was maintained.