Boundary Demarcation: Memorandum of Settlement (Bodo Accord)

3. (a) Name: Bodoland Autonomous Council (BAC)

There shall be formed, by an Act of Assam Legislative Assembly, a Bodoland Autonomous Council (BAC) within the State of Assam comprising continguous geographical areas between river Sankosh and Mazbat/river Pasnoi. The land records authority of the State will scruitinize the list of villages furnished by ABSU /BP AC having 50% and more of tribal population which shall be included in the BAC. For the purpose of providing a contiguous area, ever the villages having less than 50% tribal population shall be included. BAC will also include Reserve Forests as per the guidelines laid by Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, not otherwise required by the Government for manning the international border and tea gardens located completely within the BAC continguous area.

12. Changes in Geographical Boundary

The geographical area of the Bodoland Autonomous Council as agreed upon can be changed with the mutual consent of the BAC and the Government of Assam.

Implementation History

1993

Minimum Implementation

The February 1993 accord did not delineate the boundary decided on by the Bodoland Autonomous Council. The accord provided that Assam’s land records authority would scrutinize the list of villages, furnished by ABSU/BPAC, where there would be 50% or more of a tribal population. In order to provide for a contiguous area, the accord also contained a provision included villages that had less then 50% population. The Bodoland Autonomous Council Act received the presidential assent on 13 May 1993 and was published on 15 May 1993 in the Assam Gazette (Extra ordinary No. 60). The BAC was established on 17 December 1993 when the government finalized its boundary. Nevertheless, the boundary demarcation did not meet the accord’s provision regarding contiguous areas. The government failed to include 515 "contentious villages" in the BAC domain. This suggests a unilateral demarcation of BAC border.1 ABSU and BPAC, both parties to the Memorandum of Settlement, rejected the territorial domain of BAC, which resulted in large scale violence. 

  • 1. Sudhir Jacob George, “The Bodo Movement in Assam: Unrest to Accord,” Asian Survey 34, no. 10 (1994): 890; Manoj Kumar Nath, “Bodo Insurgency in Assam: New Accord and New Problems,” Strategic Analysis 27, no. 4 (2003): 533-545.
1994

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

1995

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

1996

Minimum Implementation

When the BAC domain was rejected widespread agitation and violence ensued. It was during this time that BSF started to engage in violent conflict and other violent groups began to emerge. These groups included the Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT), which formed in June 1996.2 The ABSU leaders submitted a memorandum to the Union Welfare Minister and the Union Minister of State demanding the immediate and final demarcation of the BAC boundary on 2 November 1995 and 5 November 1995 respectively. When the government tried to hold elections without the final BAC demarcation, the ABSU organized mass demonstrations and agitations opposing the non-implementation of the accord.3 The 1993 accord was not implemented. The accord failed to resolve the conflict and there was resurgence in violence.

  • 2. Nath, “Bodo Insurgency in Assam: New Accord and New Problems.”; "Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT) - Former Terrorist Group of Assam,"  South Asia Terrorism Portalhttp://www.satp.org.
  • 3. Yamao Zwhwlao Brahma et al., Bodoland Movement 1986-2001: A Dream and Reality. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 2001).
1997

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

1998

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

1999

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2000

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2001

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2002

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2003

Minimum Implementation

Over the next few years, the BLT became the de facto guardian organization of the Bodo movement. On 10 February 2003, a new Bodo Accord for the creation of the Bodololand Territorial Council was signed by the BLT, the central government, and the Assam government.4 The new accord created four new districts. The BTC compromised by apparently relinquishing 3,082 villages where the Bodos were in majority.5 However, the 2003 accord was different. 

  • 4. Nath, “Bodo Insurgency in Assam: New Accord and New Problems.”
  • 5. Ibid.