Amnesty: General Peace Agreement for Mozambique

Protocol IV.VI:

3.ii For all purposes, demobilised soldiers of both Parties shall become civilians and shall be accorded equal treatment by the State.

Implementation History

1992

Full Implementation

FRELIMO soldiers, RENAMO soldiers, and high command were not prosecuted for war crimes or crimes against humanity. Following parliamentary ratification on October 13, 1992, Chissano promulgated on October 14, 1992 legislation approving the actual peace treaty as well as a general political amnesty. The amnesty covered all crimes committed to date under the country's security and military legislation, and was agreed upon under the terms of the accord, which committed both sides to release all but common criminals.1

Except in the provision on Protocol IV.VI.3.II, amnesty was not explicitly mentioned in the 1992 General Peace Agreement, although a blanket amnesty was given for both sides. This was the principle of the peace process. According to both Harsch2 and Cobban, the 1992 peace accord in Mozambique contained a blanket amnesty for everyone, on all sides.3

  • 1. "Signature of peace treaty," Keesing's Record of World Events (Volume 38), October 1992, 39129.
  • 2. Ernest Harsch, “Reintegration of Ex-Combatants: When War Ends: Transforming Africa’s Fighters into Builders,” Africa Renewal 19, no. 3 (2005).
  • 3. Helena Cobban, Amnesty after Atrocity? Healing Nations after Genocide and War Crimes (Paradigm Publishers, 2007); Helena Cobban, “Healing lessons from another war-torn society –Mozambique,” Christian Science Monitor, May 8, 2003, http://helenacobban.org/03-05-08-healing-from-Mozambique.htm.
1993

Full Implementation

The Amnesty Law passed in 1992 and both sides received blanket amnesty.

1994

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1995

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1996

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1997

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1998

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

1999

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2000

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.