Ohrid Agreement

  • 91%
  • Implementation Score 
    after 10 years
Provisions in this Accord
Cease Fire

2.1. The parties underline the importance of the commitments of 5 July 5, 2001. There shall be a complete cessation of hostilities, complete voluntary disarmament of the ethnic Albanian armed groups and their complete voluntary disbandment.

Implementation History
2001

Full Implementation

There was a precondition of true holding of the ceasefire agreement for the NATO deployment. However, there were reports of ceasefire violation in various places. This trend continued until January 2001. It can be said that the ceasefire was held by and large.  

2002

Full Implementation

Ceasefire holding. There was no report of violence that could threaten the peace process.

2003

Full Implementation

Ceasefire holding. There was no report of violence that could threaten the peace process.

2004

Full Implementation

Ceasefire holding. There was no report of violence that could threaten the peace process.

2005

Full Implementation

Ceasefire holding. There was no report of violence that could threaten the peace process.

2006

Full Implementation

Ceasefire holding. There was no report of violence that could threaten the peace process.

2007

Full Implementation

Ceasefire holding. There was no report of violence that could threaten the peace process.

2008

Full Implementation

Ceasefire holding. There was no report of violence that could threaten the peace process.

2009

Full Implementation

Ceasefire holding. There was no report of violence that could threaten the peace process.

2010

Full Implementation

Ceasefire holding. There was no report of violence that could threaten the peace process.

Legislative Branch Reform

5. Special Parliamentary Procedures

5.1. On the central level, certain Constitutional amendments in accordance with Annex A and the Law on Local Self-Government cannot be approved without a qualified majority of two-thirds of the votes, within which there must be a majority of the votes of Representatives claiming to belong to the communities not in the majority in the population of Macedonia.

Implementation History
2001

Intermediate Implementation

Constitutional amendments of 16 November, 2001 made the Albanian language an official language as Albanians form more than 20% of the total population of Macedonia. However, there were limitations in the use of language in the assembly procedures. “Albanian deputies can speak in their language in plenary sessions and working bodies of the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia.”1

2002

Intermediate Implementation

Albanian language was allowed in the assembly procedures through constitutional amendments in 2001, which has been in place without interruption since then. 

2003

Intermediate Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2004

Intermediate Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2005

Intermediate Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2006

Intermediate Implementation

The largest Albanian party Democratic Union for Integration (DUI) which emerged from the National Liberation Army (Ushtria Clirimtare Kombetare, UCK) was not included in government despite being the largest Albanian party. While this did not violate the Ohrid Framework Agreement, the government lacked the double majority in parliament and there have been efforts by the government to circumvent the double majority requirement. In addition there has been a boycott of the Albanian party, followed by a specific agreement between Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (Vnatrešna makedonska revolucionerna organizacija, VMRO) and DUI.

2007

Intermediate Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2008

Full Implementation

The largest Albanian party Democratic Union for Integration (DUI) which emerged from the National Liberation Army (Ushtria Clirimtare Kombetare, UCK) joined the governing coalition in 2008.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Constitutional Reform

3.1. A revised Law on Local Self-Government will be adopted that reinforces the powers of elected local officials and enlarges substantially their competencies in conformity with the Constitution (as amended in accordance with Annex A) and the European Charter on Local Self-Government, and reflecting the principle of subsidiarity in effect in the European Union.

Implementation History
2001

Full Implementation

The Macedonian assembly, on 7 September 2001, approved the Ohrid Agreement and paved the wayfor the advancement of the peace process to the next stage involving disarmament of ethnic Albanian rebels and the disbandment of National Liberation Army (NLA). After the disarmament, which was scheduled to be completed within 30 days (by 27 September) of the deployment of the NATO mission, the constitutional amendments were said to be forwarded.

On 19 September 2001, after the meeting of the assembly’s constitutional commission, president Trajkovski recommended that the Macedonian Assembly draft amendments on constitutions. It was said that the public debate was to last for 10 days starting the day when the assembly drafts the amendments.1 But, the proposal by the small New Democracy party to put the constitutional amendments to a referendum disrupted the drafting process.2

On 16 November 2001, the Macedonian assembly approved 15 different amendments of the constitution including a new -- that gives improved rights to the country's ethnic Albanians. These amendments were adopted by a large majority, with 94 deputies voting in favor and only 14 against the measures.3

  • 1. "Macedonia: Assembly body recommends going on with constitutional amendments," BBC Monitoring Europe, September 19, 2001.
  • 2. "NATO begins last stage of weapons collection in Macedonia, parliament debate reflects obstacles ahead to peace," Associated Press, September 20, 2001.
  • 3. "Macedonia gets new constitution boosting ethnic-Albanian rights," Agence France Presse, November 16, 2001; For details of amendments, see, http://eudo-citizenship.eu/NationalDB/docs/MAC%20Const%20Amendments%20IV....
2002

Full Implementation

Constitutional changes were made in November 2001 as decided in the framework agreement. 

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Boundary Demarcation

3.2. Boundaries of municipalities will be revised within one year of the completion of a new census, which will be conducted under international supervision by the end of 2001. The revision of the municipal boundaries will be effectuated by the local and national authorities with international participation.

Implementation History
2001

No Implementation

Provision on boundary demarcation was not implemented. 

2002

Minimum Implementation

The Macedonian parliament approved a new law on local self-government on 24 January.1 But, boundaries of municipalities were not redrawn in 2002.

  • 1. "MACEDONIA HAS A NEW LAW ON LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT," IPR Strategic Business Information Database, February 5, 2002.
2003

Minimum Implementation

Boundaries of municipalities were not redrawn in 2003.

2004

Full Implementation

After the government approval of the draft, the Macedonian parliament opened a debate on a contentious draft law on 26 July 2004. The law, if passed would give ethnic Albanians control of 16 municipalities in the tense Balkan state.2 “The decentralization law also would reduce the number of municipalities from 123 to 80, in some cases redrawing borders to include ethnic Albanian villages in Macedonian-dominated municipalities. In two towns, the new borders would give ethnic Albanians majority control.”3 But the opposition had lodged some 200 amendments to the proposal. At the same time, the government had postponed the local election scheduled for October that year.

On August 11, 2004, the parliament adopted the bill that would redraw the municipal boundaries and give ethnic Albanian minority greater power.4 The measure was adopted with 61-7 in the 120-seat assembly.

The opposition, however, lodged a petition on 1 September 2004 demanding a referendum to revoke a disputed decentralization law.5 The referendum took place on November 7, 2004. Macedonia's government, the European Union, and the United States urged voters to boycott the referendum vote. In the referendum, the measure to scale back the decentralization and boundary demarcation was defeated as the turnout did not met the 50% threshold.6

  • 2. "Macedonia's parliament debates law to give ethnic Albanians control of some cities," Associated Press Worldstream, July 26, 2004.
  • 3. "Government calls for postponement of local elections in Macedonia until decentralization law approved," Associated Press Worldstream, July 30, 2004.
  • 4. "Macedonia adopts key reform that changes balance of ethnic power," Associated Press Worldstream, August 12, 2004.
  • 5. "Macedonia's opposition petitions for referendum on disputed decentralization law," Associated Press Worldstream, September 1, 2004.
  • 6. "International Observers Say Macedonia Vote Meets Standards; Statement by OSCE's Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights," State Department, November 8, 2004.
2005

Full Implementation

Boundary Demarcation took place in 2004.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Electoral/Political Party Reform

6. Law on Electoral Districts

The Assembly shall adopt by the end of 2002 a revised Law on Electoral Districts, taking into account the results of the census and the principles set forth in the Law on the Election of Members for the Parliament of the Republic of Macedonia.

Implementation History
2001

Intermediate Implementation

Some constitutional reforms as stipulated in the 2001 framework agreement took place in 2001. However, constitutional reform or laws related to electoral districts did not take place.

2002

Full Implementation

On 14 June 2002, Macedonia's parliament approved two new election laws related to voting procedures and minority rights. According to constitutional reforms, deputies in the 120-seat Macedonian parliament will be elected by voters choosing from among parties rather than individual candidates. The reform also revised the ballot by allowing the use of Macedonian and Albanian flag symbols to differentiate between parties. The legislative changes also divide Macedonia into six election regions rather than 120.

2003

Full Implementation

Laws related to electoral districts were passed in 2002 suggesting the implementation of the framework agreement. 

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Decentralization/Federalism

3. Development of Decentralized Government

Implementation History
2001

Minimum Implementation

On 6 December2001, the draft Law on Local Self-Government was introduced in the assembly.1 Even though Albanian minority liked the draft law, it was introduced way behind the original schedule. 

  • 1. "Macedonia: Albanian deputy backs draft Law on Local Self-Government," BBC Monitoring Europe, December 7, 2001.
2002

Intermediate Implementation

As the controversy on local self-government continued in the assembly, the ethnic Albanian rebel vowed to reactivate the disbanded National Liberation Army.2

On 22 January 2002, party leaders in Macedonia agree on draft law on local self-government. The law on local self-government was expected to be adopted by assembly later that week.3 The Macedonian parliament approved a new law on local self-government on 24 January but, boundaries of municipalities were not redrawn in 2002.4

  • 2. "Albanian guerrillas threaten to resume Macedonian insurgency," Center for Peace in the Balkans, B92, January 12, 2002.
  • 3. "Party leaders in Macedonia agree on draft law on local self-government," BBC Monitoring Europe, January 22, 2002.
  • 4. "MACEDONIA HAS A NEW LAW ON LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT," IPR Strategic Business Information Database, February 5, 2002.
2003

Intermediate Implementation

Law on local self-government was adopted in 2002. However, boundaries of municipalities were not redrawn in 2003.

2004

Law on local self-government was adopted in 2002. Boundaries of municipalities were redrawn in 2004.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Civil Administration Reform

4. Non-Discrimination and Equitable Representation

4.1. The principle of non-discrimination and equal treatment of all under the law will be respected completely. This principle will be applied in particular with respect to employment in public administration and public enterprises, and access to public financing for business development.

Implementation History
2001

No Implementation

No information available on public administration reform.

2002

No Implementation

No information available on public administration reform. During the 1990s, Albanians made up only 10.2 percent of the overall state administration. In the area of security they made up 2.9 percent of army officers and defense ministry personnel. They constituted 8.7 percent of employees in the ministry of interior and only 4 percent of the police force.1

2003

Intermediate Implementation

Reform in civil administration was underway. The multi-ethnic government which was formed in 1 November 2002, made significant effort to ensure ethnic integration in the country. By the end of the current government’s term, the representation of ethnic Albanian in public administration was expected to grow to 17 percent. In November 2003, the government started some 600 ethnic Albanians for civil servants, to be employed in state institutions in 2004.2

  • 2. "Macedonia To Employ 600 Albanians in State Administration," Balkans Business Digest, September 5, 2003.
2004

Minimum Implementation

Reform in civil administration was hampered by the economic reforms. On November 15, 2004, prime minister Kostov resigned by “accusing the Albanians of having hampered the process of economic reforms and of "worrying only about holding posts in the public administration," a guarantee given to ethnic minorities by the 2001 peace agreement.”3

  • 3. "MACEDONIA: DISAGREEMENT WITH ALBANIANS, PREMIER RESIGNS," ANSA English Media Service, November 15, 2004.
2005

Intermediate Implementation

No report available on civil administration reform but the reform process taken in 2003 was underway.

2006

Intermediate Implementation

“In the period of 2002 till 2006, the representation of the ethnic communities in the public administration increased notably (see data below). This process was accompanied by great resistance within the Macedonian majority. However, the results of this policy are visible: in less than four years, the level of equal representation of the minority groups in the state institutions has risen from the poor 2% to 16.3%. Between December 2002 and December 2005, the number of Albanians employed in the public administration increased from 8,164 to 11,290. According to the analyses of the Sector for Implementation of the Framework Agreement, on average 19 representatives of the minority groups commenced working in the public administration per week or four persons per day. Furthermore, “the percentage of Albanian civil servants has [since] risen in the police from only two to 16 percent, in the Ministry for Defense from two to 14 percent and in the Ministry for Economy from less than five to 24 percent.”4

  • 4. Mehmeti Ermira, Implementation of the Ohrid Framework Agreement,” in Power Sharing and the Implementation of the Ohrid Framework Agreement, Macedonia: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2008), 78.
2007

Intermediate Implementation

No further information is available. However, it was said that Macedonia must have a concrete police force, judicial system and public administration reforms to be considered for the EU membership.5

  • 5. "Macedonia's president confident his country can open entry talks with EU in 2008," Associated Press Worldstream, October 3, 2007.
2008

Intermediate Implementation

Significant progress was reported but quota had not been reached. No information available on ethnic composition of public administration for 2008.

2009

Intermediate Implementation

Significant progress was reported but quota had not been reached. No information available on ethnic composition of public administration for 2009.

2010

Intermediate Implementation

Significant progress was reported but quota had not been reached. No information available on ethnic composition of public administration for 2010. 

No further developments observed.

Judiciary Reform

4.3. For the Constitutional Court, one-third of the judges will be chosen by the Assembly by a majority of the total number of Representatives that includes a majority of the total number of Representatives claiming to belong to the communities not in the majority in the population of Macedonia.

Implementation History
2001

No Implementation

No information available on judiciary reform.

2002

No Implementation

No information available on judiciary reform.

2003

Intermediate Implementation

According to the American Bar Association report, out of 633 judges, 561 (88.7%) are Macedonians and 41 (6.5%) were Albanians. The report states that “across the judiciary as a whole, ethnic Macedonians and Vlachs are overrepresented, and the other ethnic communities are underrepresented. However, the situation varies from court to court. In the Supreme Court, for example, 6 of the 22 presently sitting judges (27.2%) are ethnic Albanians, as are 5 of 19 judges (26.3%) in the Gostivar Basic Court, and 4 of 17 judges (23.5%) in the Kicevo Basic Court—close to their percentage in the population at large. In some courts, particularly in western Macedonia, there are even higher percentages of ethnic Albanian judges. For example, 11 of 28 judges (39.3%) in the Tetovo Basic Court and 3 of 5 judges (60%) in the Debar Basic Court are ethnic Albanians. Nevertheless, to achieve the Constitution’s goal of fair representation of citizens of all communities, more needs to be done.”1

2004

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

Military Reform

5. Non-Discrimination and Equitable Representation

5.1. Taking into account i.a. the recommendations of the already established governmental commission, the parties will take concrete action to increase the representation of members of communities not in the majority in Macedonia in public administration, the military, and public enterprises, as well as to improve their access to public financing for business development.

Implementation History
2001

Minimum Implementation

After the agreement, Macedonian government made remarkable progress by incorporating ethnic minorities in public services, including military services.1 Information on ethnic composition of military were not available. 

  • 1. "People-Centred Analysis: Quality of Social Services,” UNDP and SEEU, 2010, 65.
2002

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2003

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2004

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2005

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2006

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2007

Minimum Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2008

Minimum Implementation

According to the 2008 data on the ethnic composition, 22% of the professional army representatives are ethnic Albanians, 2.3% are Turks, 1.3% are Roma and 2.4% are Serbs.2

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Police Reform

3.3. In order to ensure that police are aware of and responsive to the needs and interests of the local population, local heads of police will be selected by municipal councils from lists of candidates proposed by the Ministry of Interior, and will communicate regularly with the councils. The Ministry of Interior will retain the authority to remove local heads of police in accordance with the law.

Implementation History
2001

No Implementation

Information on police reform not available.

2002

No Implementation

Information on police reform not available.

2003

Intermediate Implementation

By the end of July 2003, 1,156 new recruits from non-majority communities (66.6% Albanians) had been trained by the OSCE.1 No further information available.  

2004

Intermediate Implementation

As of December 2004, the Police had increased the Albanian proportion to 13.31%.2

  • 2. Armend Reka, “The Ohrid Agreement: The Travails of Inter-ethnic Relations in Macedonia,” Human Rights Review 9 (2008): 61.
2005

Intermediate Implementation

Information on police reform not available.

2006

Intermediate Implementation

In 2006, according to the data provided by the Ombudsman’s office, the Albanians accounted for 14,9% of the 12 076 employees of the Home Affairs Office whereas 80,6% were ethnic Macedonians.3

  • 3. Nadège Ragaru, "MACEDONIA : BETWEEN OHRID AND BRUSSELS."
2007

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

Disarmament

2.1. The parties underline the importance of the commitments of 5 July 5, 2001. There shall be a complete cessation of hostilities, complete voluntary disarmament of the ethnic Albanian armed groups and their complete voluntary disbandment.

Implementation History
2001

Full Implementation

After signing a peace agreement, NATO officially started the operation "Essential Harvest" on 27 August 2001 for 30 days. This 30-day mission involved the sending of approximately 3,500 NATO troops, with logistical support, to disarm ethnic Albanian groups and destroy their weapons.1 But immediately after the deployment of the NATO troops, a spat on quantity of rebel arms to be collected emerged with government insisting at least 60,000 weapons were in the hands of the NLA, far more than the NATO estimate of less than 3,000. The Macedonian government had said in the past that the NLA had 6,000 to 8,000 light arms.2 On 24 August 2001, NATO and ethnic Albanian guerrillas agreed on number of arms to be collected, with alliance estimating 3,300 weapons, while Skopje insisted that the number was over 60,000.3

On 26 September 2001, NATO completed its 30-day mission to disarm ethnic Albanian militants. NATO forces collected a total of 3,875 weapons from the rebels, exceeding their stated goal of 3,300.4 On 27 September 2001, the leader of the National Liberation Army (NLA) Ali Ahmeti said in a press conference that the Ethnic Albanian rebels in Macedonia had formally disbanded and returned to their normal lives. He also invited the Macedonian police to enter former NLA-controlled areas.5

  • 1. "NATO’s role in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia," NATO, accessed March 3, 2011, http://www.nato.int/fyrom/.
  • 2. "Debate heats up over rebel arms as NATO troops pour into Macedonia," Agence France Presse, August 23, 2001.
  • 3. "Timetable of seven-month conflict in Macedonia," Agence France Presse, August 27, 2001.
  • 4. "Macedonia:NATO Disarmament Mission Ends; Other Developments," Facts on File World News Digest, September 26, 2001.
  • 5. "Rebels in Macedonia officially disband," Agence France Presse, September 27, 2001.
2002

Full Implementation

Ethnic Albanian rebels were disarmed in September 2001. A total of 3,875 weapons were collected in a weapon collection program launched by NATO. No further information available.

2003

Full Implementation

The weapon collection target set by NATO was met in September 2001. Nevertheless, there was a fear that many weapons remained among ethnic Albanians and Macedonians as well as fears of a resumption of the ethnic conflict. Therefore, the government launched a 45-day weapon amnesty program by offering people who handed over guns to the authorities a chance to win a car in a lottery as well as no persecution for illegally possessing guns. By 15 December 2003, “officials had collected just 7,500 items, 6,400 of which guns. Some 100,000 pieces of ammunition and 165 kilograms of explosives were also turned over.”6

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Paramilitary Groups

2. Cessation of Hostilities

Implementation History
2001

Full Implementation

The framework agreement called for a voluntary disbandment of the Albanian rebel group National Liberation Army (NLA) by 5 July 2001. This disbandment did not happen within the stipulated time frame. However, once NATO’s weapon collection goal was met in September 2001, the NLA leader Ali Ahmeti, on 27 September, said in a press conference that the Ethnic Albanian rebels in Macedonia had formally disbanded and returned to their normal lives. He also invited the Macedonian police to enter former NLA-controlled areas.1

  • 1. "Rebels in Macedonia officially disband," Agence France Presse, September 27, 2001.
2002

Full Implementation

NLA was formally disbanded in September 2001. Its members returned to their normal lives. 

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Refugees

ANNEX C

3.1. All parties will work to ensure the return of refugees who are citizens or legal residents of Macedonia and displaced persons to their homes within the shortest possible timeframe, and invite the international community and in particular UNHCR to assist in these efforts.

Implementation History
2001

Intermediate Implementation

The parliamentary debate on peace agreement was halted on issues related to refugees in early September 2002. Nationalist politicians were complaining that ethnic Albanian rebels were blocking the reparations of Slav refugees. As a matter of fact, the speaker of the assembly “adjourned the debate after demanding new conditions for the return of the estimated 125,000 Macedonian Slav refugees mainly from Kosovo.”1
UNHCR statistics shows that some 90,012 refugees returned to Macedonia.2

  • 1. "Macedonia resumes peace debate," CNN.com, September 2, 2001.
  • 2. "2005 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook Country Data Sheet - Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia," UNHCR, 2007.
2002

Intermediate Implementation

According to UNHCR, 10,767 refugees returned to Macedonia in 2002. 

2003

Intermediate Implementation

According to UNHCR, 2,201 refugees returned to Macedonia in 2003. 

2004

Full Implementation

According to UNHCR, 726 refugees returned to Macedonia in 2004. 

2005

Full Implementation

Refugee reparation was completed in 2004. This provision of the agreement was completely implemented. 

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Internally Displaced Persons

ANNEX C

3.1. All parties will work to ensure the return of refugees who are citizens or legal residents of Macedonia and displaced persons to their homes within the shortest possible timeframe, and invite the international community and in particular UNHCR to assist in these efforts.

Implementation History
2001

Full Implementation

Gradual progress was made in resettling the IDPs. In 2001, there were an estimated 510,000 refugees.1 By the end of NATO’s Operation Essential Harvest ( 27 Sept. 2001), some 55,000 IDPs had gone home.2

  • 1. "Internal displacement caused by conflict and violence," Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), July 16, 2010, accessed March 10, 2011, available at: http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4c4030912.html.
  • 2. "REFUGEES RETURN TO MACEDONIA SLOWS-UNHCR," ONASA News Agency, September 28, 2001.
2002

Full Implementation

The IDMC did not report IDPs from 2002 to 2009, which suggests that the IDPs were rehabilitated. Also, international donor agencies and European countries provided supports in resettling the IDPs. 

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Indigenous Minority Rights

5.1. On the central level, certain Constitutional amendments in accordance with Annex A and the Law on Local Self-Government cannot be approved without a qualified majority of two-thirds of votes, within which there must be a majority of the votes of Representatives claiming to belong to the communities not in the majority in the population of Macedonia.

Implementation History
2001

Intermediate Implementation

Constitutional amendments related to minority rights passed on November 16, 2001, after three months. With the amendments of the constitution, the Albanian language could be used in the assembly procedures. The first amendment (November 2001) of the constitution enabled the Albanian language in the rules of procedures of the assembly.

2002

Full Implementation

Law on Local Self-Government was passed in January 22, 2002. This ensured higher participation of ethnic minorities. 

2003

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2004

Full Implementation

On 11 August 2004, parliament adopted the bill that would redraw the municipal boundaries and give ethnic Albanian minority greater power.  Constitutional amendments were made to ensure the proportional representation of ethnic minorities in the civil administration.  

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Education Reform

6.1. With respect to primary and secondary education, instruction will be provided in the students' native languages, while at the same time uniform standards for academic programs will be applied throughout Macedonia.

6.2. State funding will be provided for university level education in languages spoken by at least 20 percent of the population of Macedonia, on the basis of specific agreements.

Implementation History
2001

No Implementation

Following the approval of the constitutional changes by the parliament in November 2001, the issue of Albanian-language higher education remained unresolved. The issue was related to the legalization of Tetovo University, which was an Albanian language higher education institution.1

  • 1. "Macedonia: rector calls for legalization of ethnic Albanian Tetovo University," BBC Monitoring Europe, November 21, 2001.
2002

No Implementation

Issues related to legality of the Albanian language higher education remained unresolved. It remained a contentious issue. 

2003

Full Implementation

On 17 July 2003, government changed the education law and allowed the ethnic-Albanian Tetovo University to operate on a legal basis. “The move is a decisive step towards ending a standoff that has become one of the most divisive issues in Macedonian politics. Education has been the source of significant tension between the ethnic-Macedonian majority and the country's 30% Albanian minority, which currently forms only 3% of the student population at the two official universities of Skopje and Bitola. The recognition of Tetovo University was a key demand in the 2001 clashes between ethnic Albanian rebel forces and the Macedonian government.”2 According to the law, “the Albanian language is raised to the level of official use in the institutions of higher education, and will at the same time enjoy the right to funds from the state budget in the same way as the University of Shkup Skopje and that of Manastir Bitola.”3

  • 2. "Macedonia Moves to Legalize Ethnic-Albanian University," World Markets Analysis, July 1, 2003.
  • 3. "Macedonia's Tetovo University receives state funding under new law," BBC Monitoring Europe, July 19, 2003.
2004

Full Implementation

Education reform took place in 2004 that met the ethnic Albanian demands.  

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Official Language and Symbol

6.1. With respect to primary and secondary education, instruction will be provided in the students' native languages, while at the same time uniform standards for academic programs will be applied throughout Macedonia.

6.2. State funding will be provided for university level education in languages spoken by at least 20 percent of the population of Macedonia, on the basis of specific agreements.

Implementation History
2001

Full Implementation

Constitutional amendments of 16 November, 2001, made the Albanian language an official language as Albanians form more than 20% of the total population of Macedonia.1

According to the law, it can be used in assembly procedures as well as in local government in municipalities where the Albanians comprise more than 20% of the population. 

2002

Full Implementation

Constitutional amendments took place in 2001.

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Media Reform

ANNEX C

Implementation History
2001

No Implementation

According to the United States Department of State’s annual human rights report, the Macedonian government restricted ethnic Albanians access to media, intimidated media that was critical of the government; and government was bias in its support of media sector.  Ethnic Turks also faced discrimination in education and media access.1

2002

Intermediate Implementation

The United States Department of State’s  2002 annual human rights reported significant improvement in media sector, but there were cases against journalists for insulting former parliament speaker Stojan Andov. In this regard, court decided to fine, and imprison journalists. The court decisions were protested as attempts to intimidate journalists and effort to control media access.2

2003

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

Ratification Mechanism

8.1. The Constitutional amendments attached at Annex A will be presented to the Assembly immediately. The parties will take all measures to assure adoption of these amendments within 45 days of signature of this Framework Agreement.

8.2. The legislative modifications identified in Annex B will be adopted in accordance with the timetables specified therein.

10.1. This Agreement takes effect upon signature.

Implementation History
2001

Full Implementation

The Macedonian assembly, on 7 September 2001, approved the Ohrid Agreement and paved the way for the advancement of the peace process to the next stage involving disarmament of ethnic Albanian rebels and the disbandment of National Liberation Army (NLA). After the disarmament, which was scheduled to be completed within 30 days (by 27 September) of the deployment of the NATO mission, the constitutional amendments were said to be forwarded. 

2002

Full Implementation

Ratification of the agreement took place in September 2001. 

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Donor Support

8.3. The parties invite the international community to convene at the earliest possible time a meeting of international donors that would address in particular macro-financial assistance; support for the financing of measures to be undertaken for the purpose of implementing this Framework Agreement, including measures to strengthen local self-government; and rehabilitation and reconstruction in areas affected by the fighting.

Implementation History
2001

No Implementation

A donor conference did not take place in 2001.

2002

Full Implementation

A donor conference was held in March 2002 and raised 307 million Euro. European commission pleaded 104 million Euro of which 32.54 million Euro was for reconstruction and rehabilitation of areas affected directly by the conflict. It was reported that the donors would spend an extra 271 million Euro on general economic development in Macedonia in 2002. The World Bank's contribution is 57 million Euro.1 Donor countries and communities pledged some Euro 307 for  the reconstruction and rehabilitation of areas affected by the conflict. This support was additional to 271 million Euro given for general economic development in 2002.

  • 1. "EU/MACEDONIA: DONORS RAISE MORE THAN PLANNED," European Report, March 16, 2002.
2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Detailed Implementation Timeline

8.1. The Constitutional amendments attached at Annex A will be presented to the Assembly immediately. The parties will take all measures to assure adoption of these amendments within 45 days of signature of this Framework Agreement.

8.2. The legislative modifications identified in Annex B will be adopted in accordance with the timetables specified therein.

Implementation History
2001

Intermediate Implementation

Constitutional amendments were supposed to be made within 45 days of agreement, but it was made in 16 November 2001, after three months. 

2002

Intermediate Implementation

Law on Local Self-Government was passed in 22 January 2002. This did not meet the stipulated deadline of 45 days.

Law on municipal boundaries was not passed within the stipulated timeline, by the end of 2002.

As stipulated, by the end of 2002, the assembly adopted a revised electoral district law.

A donor conference was held in March 2002 and raised 307 million Euro. European commission pleaded 104 million Euro of which 32.54 million Euro was for reconstruction and rehabilitation of areas affected directly by the conflict.

The first amendment (November 2001) of the constitution enabled the Albanian language in the rules of procedures of the assembly. Macedonia started an internationally monitored census (including Council of Europe and the European Commission) on 1 November 2002, to determine the size of the ethnic groups. According to the agreement, this should have been done by the end of October 2002. 

2003

Intermediate Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2004

Intermediate Implementation

Law on municipal boundaries was not passed within the stipulated timeline, by the end of 2002. On 8 August 2004, the parliament adopted the bill that would redraw the municipal boundaries and give ethnic Albanian minority greater power.  

2005

Intermediate Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2006

Intermediate Implementation

Representation from all ethnic groups in the police service lagged behind. By 2006, the representation of ethnic Albanian was only 16%.

2007

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

Verification/Monitoring Mechanism

2.1. The parties underline the importance of the commitments of 5 July 5, 2001. There shall be a complete cessation of hostilities, complete voluntary disarmament of the ethnic Albanian armed groups and their complete voluntary disbandment.

Implementation History
2001

Intermediate Implementation

After signing of a peace agreement, NATO officially started the operation "Essential Harvest" on 27 August 2001, for 30 days. This 30-day mission involved the sending of approximately 3,500 NATO troops, with logistical support, to disarm ethnic Albanian groups and destroy their weapons.1

On 26 September 2001, NATO completed its 30-day mission to disarm ethnic Albanian militants. “NATO forces collected a total of 3,875 weapons from the rebels, exceeding their stated goal of 3,300. The first of the 4,500 NATO troops in the operation began departing Macedonia on 27 September. The troops were to be replaced by a security force of 700 new NATO troops, who for three months would join 300 soldiers currently stationed in the region. The 1,000-strong deployment, to be led by Germany, would be charged with providing security for unarmed international monitors who would oversee the country's return to peace.”2 After collection of arms, NATO urged the Macedonian parliament to discuss the concrete amendments of the Constitution. It also asked to proceed with the Amnesty law.

On 7 December 2001, NATO extended its military mission in Macedonia by three months until 26 March. The purpose of the extension was to protect the international monitors who were overseeing the implementation of the peace plan.3

  • 1. "NATO’s role in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia," NATO, accessed March 3, 2011, http://www.nato.int/fyrom/.
  • 2. "Macedonia: NATO Disarmament Mission Ends; Other Developments, Facts on File," World News Digest, September 26, 2001.
  • 3. "NATO extends Macedonia force mandate," Morning Star, December 8, 2001.
2002

Intermediate Implementation

The NATO Mission was extended until 15 December 2002. The Mission was “mandated to contribute to the protection of international monitors from the European Union and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, who are overseeing the implementation of the peace plan.”4

2003

Full Implementation

The Mission was extended until March 2003. The extension was designed to “provided support for the international monitors; its advisory elements assisted the government in taking ownership of security throughout the country.” The NATO Mission was terminated on 30 March 2003 with the replacement of a successor operation from the European Union.5 The EU operation was set to finish by the end of the year.6 The purpose of the EU operation in Macedonia was to contribute further to a stable and secure environment for the implementation of the 2001 Ohrid Framework Agreement. This operation was completed on 15 December 2003.

  • 5. Ibid.
  • 6. "EU appoints Portuguese general to head Macedonia force," Agence France Presse, July 25, 2003.
2004

Full Implementation

Since provisions of peace agreement were implemented, there was no international monitoring present in 2004.  

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Please always cite: Peace Accords Matrix (Date of retrieval: (11/24/2017),
http://peaceaccords.nd.edu/accord/ohrid-agreement,
Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame.