Agreement for the Reform and Civil Concord

  • 52%
  • Implementation Score 
    after 10 years
Provisions in this Accord
Cease Fire

Accord Cadre de Reforme et de Concorde Civile (Signed on Feb 7, 2000)

CLAUSE 5: CIVIL PEACE AND SECURITY.

The two parties engage to suspend hostilities.

(Note: Final peace agreement, Accord de reforme et concorde civile, recognizes the ceasefire agreement signed on Feb. 7, 2000)

Implementation History
2001

Full Implementation

There were no violations of the ceasefire reported in Djibouti after the signing of the new peace agreement.1

2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Electoral/Political Party Reform

Article 12: On the Multiparty System.

a) The two Parties agree that at the expiry, on 3 September, 2002, of the period of implementation of the issue of a referendum concerning the limitation to four political parties, article 6 of the Constitution of September 1992 will ipso facto come into force.

Implementation History
2001

No Implementation

The signatories agreed that the legal limitation of allowing only four political parties would be set to automatically expire in 2001.  

2002

Full Implementation

On September 30, 2002, Djibouti government issued a decree (No. 2002-0198/PR/MID) related to the amendment on the composition and functioning of the Independent National Electoral Commission. The decree had the following provisions:

Article 3: The Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), in the District of Djibouti, is composed of: Three (3) members appointed by the Government; Three (3) members appointed by the President of the National Assembly taking into account its political configuration; Three (3) judges elected in general assembly of judges; Are not eligible members of the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Council [sic]; Three representatives from civil society. A person appointed by each political party duly constituted each institution chooses or elects one member and one alternate, up to the quota allocated to it.

In September 2002, “President Ismail Omar Guelleh announced the introduction of a full multiparty political system”. The 1992 constitution restricted the number of political parties to four. According to a new provision, all “parties would be recognised, subject to approval by the Interior Ministry.”1

Following the introduction of a multiparty system in September, the Union for Democracy and Justice, led by Ismail Guedi Hared, was registered by the Interior Ministry on October 22, 2002.2

The legislative elections were to be held in December 2002, but postponed until January 10, 2003 to allow newly registered political parties time to organize. In a statement the Interior Minister (on November 14, 2002) reported the approval of the creation of the People's Social Democratic Party (PPSD), led by a former foreign minister and former secretary general of the ruling Popular Rally for Progress (RPP) Moumin Bahdon Farah, and the Djibouti Development Party (PDD), led by the former director of the Ministry of Finance, Mohammed Daoud Chechem.3

  • 1. "Djibouti," Keesing's Record of World Events (Volume 48), September 2002, 44971.
  • 2. Ibid., 45028.
  • 3. Ibid., 45076.
2003

Full Implementation

Further political party reforms took place in 2002. Multiparty legislative elections were held on 10 January 2003. Ahmed Dini from FRUD-AD led the opposition coalition, while FRUD, which had signed the peace agreement in 1994 was a part of the Union for a Presidential Majority coalition.4

  • 4. "Djibouti," Keesing's Record of World Events (Volume 49), January 2003, 45174.
2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Decentralization/Federalism

CHAPTER V – DECENTRALIZATION

Article 18: On the Goals of the Decentralization.

The two Parties agree about the general goals of the decentralization on the following levels:

1) Political level = participation of the citizens by means of their locally elected in the administration and development of their community.

Implementation History
2001

Minimum Implementation

A process to transfer power to local entities was started in 1995 but the actual transfer of duties and power remained an issue. 

2002

Intermediate Implementation

Djibouti’s National Assembly, on 7 July 2002 passed Decentralization and Status of the Regions (Act No. 174/AN/02/4ème L), which created five regional local authorities known as: Regions Arta, Ali Sabieh, Dikhil, Obock and Tadjoura (the latter 3 mainly Afar) equipped with legal personality under public law and financial autonomy. The decentralization law also made provisions for the establishment and organization of Commons.1

It was reported that regional councilors elected by local populations would be in charge of each of the country's five administrative entities.2

  • 1. “Loi no 174/AN/02/4ème L portant Décentralisation et Statut des Régions,” Journal Officiel de la République de Djibouti, July 2, 2002, accessed February 20, 2015, http://www.presidence.dj/jo/2002/loi174an02.php.
  • 2. "Djibouti: Newspaper assesses first half of president's term," BBC Sumary of World Broadcasts, May 10, 2002.
2003

Intermediate Implementation

The decentralization law was passed in 2002 but elections for regional councilors did not take place this year. 

2004

Intermediate Implementation

The decentralization law was passed in 2002 but elections for regional councilors did not take place this year. 

2005

Minimum Implementation

The regional and municipal elections were scheduled for 30 December 2005. The interior minister urged all citizens to register and participate fully in the elections. It was also said that, in case of a run-off, a second round of the elections would be held on 20 January 2006.3

The elections were again postponed.

  • 3. "Djibouti to hold communal, regional polls 30 December," BBC Monitoring Africa – Political, November 10, 2005.
2006

Full Implementation

According to the Djibouti News Agency (ADI), the regional and communal elections were held on 10 March 2006.4

The elections were held and in all the regional assemblies, People’s Rally for Progress (RPP) won a majority of seats. In the Ali-Sabieh Regional Assembly, Balbala Communal Assembly, and Boualos Communal Assembly, a second round of elections were needed.5

  • 4. "Djibouti issues final lists of candidates for 10 March communal polls," BBC Monitoring Africa – Political, February 22, 2006.
  • 5. "10 & 31 March 2006 Regional and Communal Elections in Djibouti," African Election Database, accessed February 20, 2015, http://africanelections.tripod.com/dj_2006regional.html.
2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Civil Administration Reform

Article 15: On the Equality of all Citizens.

b) Fairly and with respect to acquired qualifications the civil and military institutions of the Republic will reflect, within their staff and hierarchy, the plurality of communities making up the Djiboutian people.

Implementation History
2001

No Implementation

According to a 2001 report, “the Government continued to discriminate against citizens on the basis of ethnicity in employment and job advancement. Somali Issas were the majority ethnic group and controlled the ruling party, the civil and security services, and the military forces. Discrimination based on ethnicity and clan affiliation limited the role of members of minority groups and clans, particularly the Afar minority ethnic group, in government and politics.”1

2002

No Implementation

The government continued to discriminate against citizens on the basis of ethnicity. Particularly Afar minority ethnic groups were discriminated.2

2003

No Implementation

The government continued to discriminate against citizens on the basis of ethnicity even if the governing coalition is a coalition of the country's clan and ethnic groups. Particularly Afar minority ethnic groups were discriminated.3

2004

No Implementation

The government continued to discriminate against citizens on the basis of ethnicity even if the governing coalition was a coalition of the country's clan and ethnic groups. Discrimination was said to have limited the role of minority groups in government and politics.4

2005

No Implementation

The government continued to discriminate against citizens on the basis of ethnicity even if the governing coalition was a coalition of the country's clan and ethnic groups. Discrimination was said to have limited the role of minority groups in government and politics.5

2006

No Implementation

As per the state department report the discrimination continued based on clan and ethnicity.6

2007

No Implementation

As per the state department report, the discrimination continued based on clan and ethnicity.7

2008

No Implementation

As per the state department report, the discrimination continued based on clan and ethnicity.8

2009

No Implementation

No report available on whether there was discrimination in the civil and military institutions.

2010

No Implementation

No report available on whether there was discrimination in the civil and military institutions.

Military Reform

Article 3: On Solutions and Remedies.

The two Parties undertake to respect the principles and to carry out the general measures below.

Implementation History
2001

Minimum Implementation

FRUD combatants were assembled in two locations, Ribta and Waddi, in the north of the country to be demobilized, disarmed and integrated into the country's security forces. According to a report, 1,160 combatants were counted and only 300 members of FRUD were enrolled in the armed forces and the police.1

  • 1. "Permanent Mission of the Republic of Djibouti to the United Nations addressed to the Department for Disarmament Affairs on the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects," United Nations (A/CONF.192/BMS/2003/CRP.105), July 7, 2003, http://www.poa-iss.org/CountryProfiles/CountryProfileInfo.aspx?Acc=M&CoI=55.
2002

Minimum Implementation

No further reports of reform were reported. It was suggested that little overall reform took place in the military and the dominance of the Somali Issas ethnic group continued.2

2003

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

Demobilization

Article 5: On Disarmament and Demobilization.

a) When the exchange of prisoners, the cessation of hostilities, the mine clearance, and the establishment of dialogue have been tangibly achieved, the two Parties agree, at the latest within 7 days after the signing of this present Agreement, to proceed to disarmament and demobilization operations in successive phases:

Implementation History
2001

Intermediate Implementation

Combatants were assembled in two locations, Ribta and Waddi, in the north of the country to be demobilized, disarmed and integrated, and inserted in the security forces. According to a report, 1,160 combatants were counted at the assembly points. The National Police Force and the National Army jointly undertook an inventory of FRUD membership. According to a report, 300 members of FRUD-AD were enrolled in the armed forces and the police, while 700 were demobilized. Those who were demobilized received grants. The whole operation took place from May 23 to June 7, 2001.1 FRUD-AD combatants were demobilized and a timetable was set to downsize government forces.2

  • 1. "Permanent Mission of the Republic of Djibouti to the United Nations addressed to the Department for Disarmament Affairs on the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects," United Nations (A/CONF.192/BMS/2003/CRP.105), July 7, 2003, http://www.poa-iss.org/CountryProfiles/CountryProfileInfo.aspx?Acc=M&CoI=55.
  • 2. "DJIBOUTI: REVIEW," Africa Review World of Information, September 26, 2002.
2002

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

Disarmament

Article 5: On Disarmament and Demobilization.

a) When the exchange of prisoners, the cessation of hostilities, the mine clearance, and the establishment of dialogue have been tangibly achieved, the two Parties agree, at the latest within 7 days after the signing of this present Agreement, to proceed to disarmament and demobilization operations in successive phases:

Implementation History
2001

Full Implementation

FRUD combatants were assembled in two locations, Ribta and Waddi, in the north of the country to be demobilized, disarmed and integrated into the security forces. According to a report, 1,160 FURD combatants were counted at the assembly points. Arms held by FRUD members were collected, in accordance with the peace agreement. On June 7, 2001 these arms were burned in the presence of an official delegation led by the Minister of the Interior and the President of FRUD. The whole operation took place from May 23 to June 7, 2001.1

  • 1. "Permanent Mission of the Republic of Djibouti to the United Nations addressed to the Department for Disarmament Affairs on the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects," United Nations (A/CONF.192/BMS/2003/CRP.105), July 7, 2003, http://www.poa-iss.org/CountryProfiles/CountryProfileInfo.aspx?Acc=M&CoI=55.
2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Reintegration

Article 6: On Integration, Reintegration, Compensation, and Reinsertion.

a) The transition from conflicts to a lasting peace requires disarmament and demobilization.

b) All former officials or other contracted employees belonging to the FRUD-Armé will be rehabilitated and reintegrated in their rights.

Implementation History
2001

Full Implementation

FRUD combatants were assembled in two locations, Ribta and Waddi, in the north of the country to be demobilized, disarmed and integrated into the security forces. According to a report, 1,160 FRUD combatants were counted at the assembly points. The National Police Force and the National Army jointly undertook an inventory of FRUD membership. According to a report, 300 members of FRUD were enrolled in the armed forces and the police, while 700 were demobilized. Those who were demobilized received grants.1 According to the same report, for those who were demobilized, the reintegration program had already started and included “a medical component aimed at helping the handicapped, vocational training in a number of fields relating to microprojects (welding, mechanics, computers), and assistance for widows and orphans, who are given appropriate training.”

  • 1. "Permanent Mission of the Republic of Djibouti to the United Nations addressed to the Department for Disarmament Affairs on the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects," United Nations (A/CONF.192/BMS/2003/CRP.105), July 7, 2003, http://www.poa-iss.org/CountryProfiles/CountryProfileInfo.aspx?Acc=M&CoI=55.
2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Prisoner Release

Article 5: On Disarmament and Demobilization.

a) When the exchange of prisoners, the cessation of hostilities, the mine clearance, and the establishment of dialogue have been tangibly achieved, the two Parties agree, at the latest within 7 days after the signing of this present Agreement, to proceed to disarmament and demobilization operations in successive phases.

Implementation History
2001

Full Implementation

The accord called for all prisoners to be released before demobilization took place. FRUD-AD announced to the press that they held 10 prisoners and that 47 FRUD-AD members were held by the government. The release of prisoners was immediate in this case.1

  • 1. "Djibouti government signs peace deal with rebels," Agence France Presse, February 7, 2000.
2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Refugees

Article 8: General Principles.

Implementation History
2001

No Implementation

No information available on implementation in North (Afar) beyond a call for rehabilitation and reconstruction in the peace agreement. Refugee issue is very tricky in Djibouti as Djibouti’s nationality law allows people from neighboring countries to come to Djibouti (Source: Bezabeh, Samson A. 2011. "Citizenship and the logic of sovereignty in djibouti." African Affairs. doi: 10.1093/afraf/adr045). Nevertheless, Djibouti’s government has been expelling non- Issa people from the country.1

  • 1. Samson A. Bezabeh, "Citizenship and the logic of sovereignty in Djibouti," African Affairs (doi: 10.1093/afraf/adr045), 2011.
2002

No Implementation

No further developments occurred this year.

2003

No Implementation

Refugee provision of the accord was not implemented. In 2003, government attempted to expel 15% if the entire population (100,000 people) by labeling them illegal migrants.2

2004

No Implementation

Refugee provision of the accord was not implemented.

2005

No Implementation

Refugee provision of the accord was not implemented.

2006

No Implementation

Refugee provision of the accord was not implemented.

2007

Intermediate Implementation

Refugee provision of the accord was not implemented.

2008

No Implementation

Refugee provision of the accord was not implemented.

2009

No Implementation

Refugee provision of the accord was not implemented.

2010

No Implementation

Refugee provision of the accord was not implemented.

Internally Displaced Persons

Article 8: General Principles.

Implementation History
2001

No Implementation

No information available on implementation in North (Afar) beyond a call for rehabilitation and reconstruction in the peace agreement. As a matter of fact, UNHCR does not report any IDPs in Djibouti between 2001 and 2005.1

Internally displaced persons issue is very tricky in Djibouti as Djibouti’s nationality law allows people from neighboring countries.2

  • 1. "2005 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook Country Data Sheet - Djibouti," UNHCR, http://www.unhcr.org/4641837611.html, Accessed 2007.
  • 2. Samson A. Bezabeh, "Citizenship and the logic of sovereignty in Djibouti," African Affairs (doi: 10.1093/afraf/adr045), 2011.
2002

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

Citizenship Reform

Article 10: On Nationality.

All persons whose membership of the Djiboutian community is verifiable in every way may claim Djiboutian citizenship. In order to make this possible the two Parties undertake to establish an ad hoc committee responsible for the acceleration of the issuing of national identity cards to these persons.

Implementation History
2001

No Implementation

According to agreement, an ad hoc committee was to be formed to issue national identity cards to those who could be verified as a member of Djibouti’s community. The agreement sought to give Djibouti nationality to nomad fighting for FRUD. No information is available on the formation of such a committee to distribute the citizenship cards.

Djibouti’s Nationality law’s Article 6 allows individuals from the Republic of Djibouty and surrounding country who acquired French nationality under the law of the administrating power.1  According to Bezabeh, Djibouti’s government was expelling non- Issa people.2

  • 1. Samson A. Bezabeh, "Citizenship and the logic of sovereignty in Djibouti," African Affairs (doi: 10.1093/afraf/adr045), 2011.
  • 2. Ibid.
2002

No Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2003

No Implementation

 This provision of the agreement was not implemented. In 2003, government attempted to expel 15% if the entire population (100,000 people) by labeling them illegal migrants.3

 

2004

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

Education Reform

Article 17: Right to Education.

a) The two Parties subscribe to the wish, as it is affirmed in Chapter V of the Peace Accord of December 1994, of reinforced support to schools for children from the zones affected by the armed conflict.

Implementation History
2001

No Implementation

According to the UNESCO report, school participation rates in Djibouti was very low with 15% boys and 8% girls. There was low community participation in terms of involvement of families in the functioning of schools in the rural communities. Only few nomadic people had basic literacy trainings.1

2002

No Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2003

No Implementation

Djibouti signed bilateral agreement on education with Japan and France separately.2 It was not clear whether projects outlined in these agreements were aimed to improve schools in war affected regions.

  • 2. "Djibouti, Japan sign basic education project agreement," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, August 30, 2003; "Djibouti and France sign agreement on education," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, July 25, 2003.
2004

No Implementation

No progress was reported in terms of improving schools conditions in war affected regions. 

2005

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

Media Reform

Article 14: On the Freedom of the Press.

The Parties undertake to work for the ensuring of the freedom of the press in accordance with the organic law number 21/AN/92/2ème L du 15/09/92 as it was amended in its articles 4, 60 and 63 concerning the freedom of communication, which reconciles the right to information with the right to private life and to public order.

Implementation History
2001

Minimum Implementation

Although the Djibouti constitution provides for freedom of the press, the Government restricts this right in practice. Opposition leaders practice self-censorship and refrain from popular demonstrations in order to avoid government crackdowns.1

2002

Minimum Implementation

There are reported restrictions on freedom of the press and limited freedom of assembly.2

2003

Minimum Implementation

According to a news report, Daher Ahmed Farah, editor of the newspaper "Le Renouveau" was arrested in Djibouti on the morning of 20 April 2003, and placed in solitary confinement at Gabode prison.3 As of 2003, Djibouti had not ratified the international covenant on civil and political rights.4

  • 3. "Djibouti; Editor of Opposition Newspaper Arrested Again," Africa News, April 23, 2003.
  • 4. "DJIBOUTI: COUNTRY PROFILE," Africa Review World of Information, September 23, 2003.
2004

Minimum Implementation

According to reports, the Djiboutian government restricted freedom of the press and freedom of assembly in 2004.5

2005

Minimum Implementation

The Djiboutian authorities shut down the Radio France Internationale's (RFI) on January 14, 2005 for its reporting on an ongoing French legal inquiry into the 1995 death in Djibouti of Bernard Borrel, a French judge.6

  • 6. "Djibouti; CPJ Condemns Radio Censorship," Africa News, February 16, 2005.
2006

Minimum Implementation

Government restrictions on media continued. The U.S. State Departments reports opposition leaders self-censoring, limited freedom of assembly, and government crackdown of demonstrations.7

2007

Minimum Implementation

Government restrictions on media continued. The U.S. State Departments reports opposition leaders self-censoring, limited freedom of assembly, and government crackdown of demonstrations.8

2007

Minimum Implementation

It was reported that the government silenced the only opposition newspaper, Le Renouveau, for its news report “published on 1 February about a businessman who reportedly paid an indemnity to the national bank governor, who happens to be President Ismaël Omar Guelleh's brother-in-law.”9

  • 9. "Djibouti; Police Arrest Brother And Cousin of Opposition Weekly's Managing Editor," Africa News, February 7, 2007.
2008

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

Reparations

Article 7: On Beneficiaries.

The next of kin of the FRUD victims will receive assistance.

External financial aid will be applied for in order to implement this programme within the framework of the strengthening of the peace process and the prevention of conflicts.

Article 9: On Consequences for Civilians.

Implementation History
2001

No Implementation

No information available on whether the civilian victims of conflict received reparations from the government as per the peace agreement. 

2002

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

No Implementation

No further developments observed.

Economic and Social Development

Article 8: General Principles.

a) Eager to contribute to the acceleration of the economic development of the country as well as its regional integration the two Parties undertake to do everything that is in their power in order to remedy the harmful effects of the conflict on the macro economical environment.

Implementation History
2001

Minimum Implementation

Specific information regarding infrastructure and reconstruction projects are not available. The country made modest advances in implementing structural reforms and pursued investment and economic development programs.1

The economic growth rate for 2001 was 2% of GDP.2

  • 1. "DJIBOUTI: REVIEW," Africa Review World of Information, September 26, 2002.
  • 2. "World Bank Development Indicators," World Bank, 2011.
2002

Minimum Implementation

Specific information regarding infrastructure and reconstruction projects are not available. The economic growth rate was 3% of GDP in 2002.3

2003

Minimum Implementation

Specific information regarding infrastructure and reconstruction projects are not available. The economic growth rate was 3% of GDP in 2003.4

2004

Minimum Implementation

Specific information regarding infrastructure and reconstruction projects are not available. The growth rate was 4% of GDP in 2004.5

2005

Minimum Implementation

Specific information regarding infrastructure and reconstruction projects are not available. The economic growth rate was 3% of GDP in 2005.6

2006

Minimum Implementation

Specific information regarding infrastructure and reconstruction projects are not available. The economic growth rate was 5% of GDP in 2006.7

2007

Minimum Implementation

Specific information regarding infrastructure and reconstruction projects are not available. The economic growth rate was 5% of GDP in 2007.8

2008

Minimum Implementation

Specific information regarding infrastructure and reconstruction projects are not available. The economic growth rate was 6% of GDP in 2008.9

2009

Minimum Implementation

Specific information regarding infrastructure and reconstruction projects are not available. The economic growth rate was 5% of GDP in 2009.10

2010

Minimum Implementation

Specific information regarding infrastructure and reconstruction projects are not available. 

Donor Support

Article 23: General Principles.

b) They agree to involve friendly countries and international organizations in the consolidation of Peace by asking them to provide financial and technical support.

Implementation History
2001

No Implementation

No information available on donor support to facilitate the peace process.

2002

Minimum Implementation

In November 2002, the European Commission provided 34.8 million Euro to be used on “development projects and assistance in order to support government's efforts to reduce poverty through sustainable economic and social development and to implement the peace agreement.” This cooperation program was expected to last for the next five years (2002-2007).1

  • 1. "Republic of Djibouti: Commission approves EUR 34.8 million co-operation programme," RAPID. November 22, 2002.
2003

Minimum Implementation

Further information not available on donor support to consolidate the peace after 2001 agreement with FRUD-AD. There were reports of US support but most of the support was related to initiatives designed to fight Somali insurgents.

2004

Minimum Implementation

No further information available on donor support to consolidate the peace process. 

2005

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Minimum Implementation

No further developments observed.

Detailed Implementation Timeline

Article 25: On the Timetable.

a) The procedures of demobilization defined in Article 6 of the present Agreement will start as soon as the present Agreement has been signed and must of necessity be accomplished within two weeks.

Implementation History
2001

Full Implementation

The demobilization, integration, and reintegration of elements of the accord were completed within the timeline as stipulated in the peace agreement. The process of demobilization, integration, and reintegration started on May 23 and was completed on June 7, 2001. 

2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2009

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2010

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Please always cite: Peace Accords Matrix (Date of retrieval: (02/21/2017),
http://peaceaccords.nd.edu/accord/agreement-reform-and-civil-concord,
Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame.