Abuja Peace Agreement

  • 96%
  • Implementation Score 
    after 10 years
Provisions in this Accord
Cease Fire

ABUJA PEACE AGREEMENT

II. The parties to the conflict in Guinea-Bissau meeting in Abuja, Nigeria on 21 October and 1st November 1998 in the context of the efforts of the 21st Summit of the Authority of the Heads of State and Government of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Hereby As Follows:

Implementation History
1998

Intermediate Implementation

A ceasefire agreement was reached on 26 August 1998 but fighting continued.  By mid-October, the government and rebel forces had resumed armed conflict.1 As the rebels began to gain more territory, Guinea-Bissau’s president ordered all government troops to stop fighting and called for a meeting with the rebel leader to reach a peaceful settlement.2 Demanding the withdrawal of all foreign troops that supported President Joao Bernardo Vieira, the rebel leader Brig. Ansumane Mane announced a 48-hr ceasefire on 24 October.3 On 25 October, both sides agreed to initiate talks.4 On 30 October, the leaders of the warring parties went to the Nigerian capital, Abuja, for peace talks on the sideline of the ECOWAS summit.5 On 1 November 1998, both sides signed the Abuja Peace Agreement that reaffirmed the August ceasefire agreement. After the Abuja Peace Agreement, there was no fighting for the rest of the year.

  • 1. "Guinea-Bissau: Cease-Fire Jeopardized by Resumption of Fighting in Bissau,”BBC Monitoring Africa, October 19, 1998.
  • 2. “Guinea-Bissau's President Calls for Cease-Fire After Rebels Advance,"The Associated Press, October 21, 1998.
  • 3. “Guinea-Bissau's Rebels announce cease-fire, demand withdrawal of foreign troops,”Associated Press, October 24, 1998.
  • 4. “Guinea-Bissau Rebel Leader Agrees to Talks with President,” Associated Press, October 25, 1998.
  • 5. “Guinea-Bissau Leaders Arrive in Abuja for Negotiations, as West African Summit,”Agence France Presse, October 30, 1998.
1999

Intermediate Implementation

The Abuja Peace Agreement was signed in November of 1998 and reaffirmed the ceasefire accord signed in August of 1998. The Agreement faltered when the rebel forces led by General Ansumane Mane and the government forces loyal to President Vieira exchanged gunfire. It was reported that the two sides clashed on 31 January. The rebels asked the president to leave the capital. It was also reported that thousands fled their homes due to ongoing clashes between rebel and government forces.6

The government and rebel representatives negotiated a ceasefire agreement on 3 February 1999,7 by which time the fighting was reported to have killed at least 35 people and wounded several hundred others. In the accord, both sides agreed to the immediate withdrawal of the non-ECOMOG Senegalese and Guinean forces who had been bolstering President Vieira. Meeting in Lomé, Togo on 17 February, Mane and Vieira pledged never to resort to arms again.8

However, forces loyal to the rebels and the government clashed again on 7 May 1999. The rebels concentrated their attack in the capital city, including the presidential residence. Troops fighting for the president surrendered and the president took refuge at the Senegalese Embassy in Bissau. He requested asylum from Portugal, which was granted.9 After this incident, the ECOWAS and the United Nations Security Council condemned the ousting of the democratically elected president.10 No fighting was reported after the ousting of the president.

  • 6. “Guinea-Bissau: Government, Rebel Forces Reportedly Engage in Heavy Fighting,” BBC Monitoring Africa, January 31, 1999; “Guinea-Bissau crisis worsens as thousands begin to flee,” Agence France Presse, February 01, 1999.
  • 7. “Warring sides in Guinea-Bissau sign ceasefire accord.” Agence France Presse, 03 February 1999.
  • 8. "Guinea-Bissau," Keesing's Record of World Events 45 (January 1999): 42708.
  • 9. “Guinea-Bissau: President's Residence Attacked, Loyalists Surrender,” BBC Monitoring Africa, May 8, 1999.
  • 10. “UN Council Concerned at Resumption of Fighting in Guinea-Bissau,” Xinhua News Agency, May 7, 1999; “ECOWAS Foreign Ministers Take Decisions on Niger, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone,” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, May 28, 1999.
2000

Full Implementation

At this time, no further violations of the ceasefire were reported.

2001

Full Implementation

No further violations were reported.

2002

Full Implementation

No further violation were reported.

2003

Full Implementation

No further violations were reported.

2004

Full Implementation

No further violations were reported.

2005

Full Implementation

No further violatons were reported.

2006

Full Implementation

No further violations were reported.

2007

Full Implementation

No further violations were reported.

2008

Full Implementation

No further violations were reported.

2009

Full Implementation

No further violations were reported.

Powersharing Transitional Government

ABUJA PEACE AGREEMENT

4. To immediately put in place a government of national unity, which will include, among other things, representatives of the self-proclaimed junta, in line with the agreement already reached by the parties.

Implementation History
1998

Intermediate Implementation

The Abuja Peace Agreement, signed on 1 November 1998, provided for the establishment of a national unity government. Immediately after the signing of the accord, the acting foreign minister declared that the national unity government would include representatives from the military junta. The rebel leaders were given the option to join the government after leaving active duty or to recommend representatives from civil society.1 On November 16, the president started his consultations with various political parties on the peace accord’s provision of establishing a unity government.2 

On 4 December 1998, President João Bernardo Vieira officially appointed Francisco Fadul, an advisor to the rebel leader Gen. Mame, as the country’s new prime minister.3 However, in December Fadul was quoted as saying that he would not allow his new government to be sworn in until all foreign troops who had supported Vieira against rebel leader Gen. Ansumane Mane had left the country.4 After the presidential appointment of Fadul, the rebels and the government signed a Final Communiqué of the Lome Meeting on the Peace Process in Bissau on 15 December 1998 that created the structure of the unity government and the distribution of positions between the government and the rebels.

According to the communiqué, the following ministries were allocated to the president and his loyalists:

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
Ministry of Justice and Labour
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Natural Resources
Ministry of Education, Youth, Culture and Sports
Ministry of Health and Social Affairs
Secretariat of State for Energy, National Resources and Environment
Secretariat of State for Transport and Communications
Secretariat of State for Administrative Reform and Public Service

The following ministries were said to be provided to the rebel side or Self-Proclaimed Military Junta:

Ministry of Defense and for Freedom Fighters of the Country
Ministry of Internal Administration
Ministry of Economy and Finance
Ministry of Social Welfare
Secretariat of State for the Treasury
Secretariat of State for Commerce, Industry, Tourism, Arts and Crafts
Secretariat of State for Social Communication and Parliamentary Affairs
Secretariat of State for Freedom Fighters of the Country

  • 1. “Guinea-Bissau: Minister Says Rebels Welcome to Join National Unity Government,” BBC Monitoring Africa, November 2, 1998.
  • 2. “Guinea-Bissau president in consultations for unity government,” Agence France Presse, November 16, 1998.
  • 3. "Guinea-Bissau," Keesing's Record of World Events 45 (January 1999): 42708; “Guinea-Bissau: Gen Mane's Aide Appointed New Prime Minister,” BBC Monitoring Africa, December 1998.
  • 4. "Guinea-Bissau."
1999

Intermediate Implementation

On 20 February 1999, an interim government of national unity was sworn in. The cabinet included 16 members and was led by Prime Minister Francisco Fadul, who had been an advisor to General Mane. Among the 16 members, President Vieira and Mane had chosen eight members each. The government was to be in power until new elections were held. Elections were expected to be held in 1999.5

On May 14, 1999, only one week after President ‘Nino’ had been overthrown, the Speaker of the National Assembly and a prominent member of PAIGC, Malam Bacai Sanhá, was sworn in as interim President of the Republic, pending democratic elections. With the exception of a few minor nuances, this action was in accordance with the 1996 constitution, which allowed an interim president to be in office for a maximum of 60 days.6 Malam Bacai Sanhá was expected to remain in office from May 14 until after the elections began on November 28; thus his term would last for more than 60 days. It was also evident that the old parliament, elected in 1994, remained in office for much longer than the four years foreseen by the constitution. However, there was also an article (94.2) which stated that the members would retain their mandates until a new parliament had been elected. These changes were formalized in the “pact on the political transition” approved by parliament, the fourteen legally constituted political parties, the transitional government, and the military junta. The pact was described as a framework for leading the country back to “constitutional normality”.7 The transitional government under Prime Minister Francisco Fadul continued in office.

All this was not only in the spirit of the constitution, but also in accord with the West African and internationally backed Abuja Peace Agreement of November 1, 1998. The final and only point of the peace agreement that had not yet been implemented (although power-sharing by or with President Vieira was no longer possible) was democratic elections. The November 28, 1999 date for the first round of these elections had paradoxically been set by the reluctant ex-President himself, only a few days before he was forced out. It was confirmed in the transition pact.

The war was thus over and government institutions were in place. On June 6, 1999, President ‘Nino’ Vieira was allowed to leave the Portuguese embassy to seek political asylum in Portugal, by way of The Gambia. Vieira signed a document declaring that he was prepared to return to stand trial in Bissau in exchange for legal guarantees. He did not return. Politicians and military officers reiterated their agreement on democratic elections and the return to peace. But the state treasury was empty and the economy was almost paralyzed. The donors were skeptical. The authority of the state was dependent on the military might of the victorious ‘junta’.The months that followed were marked by the civilian government’s efforts to establish its authority and the military’s endeavors to “remain in the barracks.”8 

Multiparty elections for the legislature and president took place on 28 November 1999. In the legislative elections, the Social Renewal Party (PRS) won more seats and more votes than other political parties. None of the candidates emerged as a clear winner in the presidential elections. The second round of presidential elections was set to be held in January 2000.9

2000

Full Implementation

After holding presidential elections, the unity government provision in the accord was implemented. Kumba Ialá from the Social Renewal Party won the second round of presidential elections held on 16 January 2000.10After the elections, the Party of Social Renewal named 38-year old Caetano N'Tchama as prime minister.11

According to the Abuja Peace Agreement, the national unity government was intended to stand until elections were held. Nevertheless, the government of Guinea-Bissau, which took its final shape on 20 February, was comprised of a 22-person team that included members of all former opposition parties apart from the onetime single ruling PAIGC.12

2001

Full Implementation

The unity government provision of the accord was implemented after a new power-sharing government was formed through presidential elections in January 2000.

There were no further developments.

2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Refugees

CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT IN BISSAU

Article 1

(f) Creation of conditions which may facilitate the return of refugees and resettlement of displaced.

Implementation History
1998

No Implementation

The July 1998 ceasefire agreement was reaffirmed in the final accord—the Abuja Peace Agreement—in November of the same year. The accord required that each party work to facilitate the resettlement of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs), but did not provide any steps that should be taken to achieve that goal. The signing of the ceasefire in July did not hold, which created further security concerns for refugees. As a matter of fact, more and more people fled the country after heavy fighting broke out in the country in October.1

  • 1. “Heavy Fighting Breaks out in Guinea-Bissau,” Xinhua News Agency, October 19, 1998.
1999

Intermediate Implementation

Progress was made in terms of the return of refugees. Voluntary repatriation started in July.2 By December 1999, 232 refugees from Gambia, 855 from Senegal, and 456 from Cape Verde returned home.3 The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported that 5,276 refugees returned home in 1999.4

  • 2. “Guinea-Bissau: voluntary repatriation starts,” United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), accessed July 13, 1999, http://www.unhcr.org/3ae6b820b0.html.
  • 3. “Report of the Secretary-General on Developments in Guinea-Bissau and on the Activities of the United Nations Peace-Building Support Office in that Country,” U.N. Security Council (S/1999/1276), December 23, 1999.
  • 4. “2003 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook - Guinea-Bissau,” UNHCR, accessed 2005, http://www.unhcr.org/41d2c172c.html.
2000

Full Implementation

The return of refugees continued in 2000. It was reported that an improved relationship between Guinea-Bissau and its neighboring countries facilitated in the return of refugees.5 As a sign of further improvement in the repatriation of refugees from neighboring countries, starting 15 June the government of Guinea-Bissau, after consultation with the UNHCR, started the repatriation of another 900 refugees.6 According to an UNHCR report, 890 refugees returned home in 2000.7

  • 5. “Report of the Secretary General on developments in Guinea-Bissau,” U.N. Security Council  (S/2000/250) March 24, 2000.
  • 6. “Report of the Secretary General on developments in Guinea-Bissau and on the activities of the United Nations Peace-building Support Office in that country.”
  • 7. “2003 UNHCR Statistical Yearbook - Guinea-Bissau."
2001

Full Implementation

Most of the refugees who fled Guinea-Bissau during the conflict were resettled back to their home country in 2000. The UNHCR and the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau did not report further issues relating to the repatriation of refugees to Guinea-Bissau.

2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Internally Displaced Persons

CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT IN BISSAU

Article 1

(f) Creation of conditions which may facilitate the return of refugees and resettlement of displaced.

Implementation History
1998

No Implementation

The July 1998 ceasefire agreement, which was reaffirmed in the final accord in November of the same year, provided that the parties to the accord facilitate the resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs). However, it did not provide a list of any steps that should be taken to achieve this goal. The ceasefire that was signed in July did not hold, furthering security concern for IDPs. Indeed, heavy fighting broke out in October1 and created massive displacement. Following the heavy fighting, the United Nations issued an appeal for $28.6 million to meet the urgent needs of some 385,000 IDPs.2

  • 1. “Heavy Fighting Breaks out in Guinea-Bissau,” Xinhua News Agency, October 19, 1998.
  • 2. “Guinea-Bissau; UN Issues Appeal For Guinea-Bissau,” Africa News, December 15, 1998.
1999

Intermediate Implementation

Internal displacement remained very high as parties repeatedly violated the ceasefire. After the ousting of President Joao Bernardo Vieira in July, the situation gradually improved. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported that an estimated 215,000 IDPs returned to their homes.3 

2000

Full Implementation

It was reported that the humanitarian situation in Guinea-Bissau had improved significantly and an estimated 215,000 IDPS had returned to their homes. Also, there were no reports related to IDPs in 2000, suggesting significant achievement in the resettlement of IDPs.4

  • 4. “Report of the Secretary-General on developments in Guinea-Bissau,” U.N. Security Council (S/2000/250), accessed March 24, 2000.
2001

Full Implementation

IDPs who fled their homes during the conflict were resettled back to their homes and communities in 1999 and 2000. The UNHCR and the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau did not report any remaining issues relating to the resettlement of IDPs.

2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Detailed Implementation Timeline

ABUJA PEACE AGREEMENT

4. To immediately put in place a government of national unity, which will include, among other things, representatives of the self-proclaimed junta, in line with the agreement already reached by the parties;

Implementation History
1998

Intermediate Implementation

The timeline specified in the peace agreement was not respected in many instances. It took longer than was agreed upon for the formation of the unity government and for foreign troops to leave Bissau.

1999

Intermediate Implementation

The timeline specified in the peace agreement was not respected in many instances. It took longer than was agreed upon for the formation of the unity government and for foreign troops to leave Bissau. Also, the general and presidential elections did not take place in March of 1999.  

2000

Full Implementation

The timeline specified in the peace agreement was not respected in many instances. It took longer than was agreed upon for the formation of the unity government and for foreign troops to leave Bissau. Also, the general and presidential elections did not take place in March of 1999. Once elections took place, implementation proceeded smoothly. 

2001

Full Implementation

Implementation proceeded smoothly. No delays reported. 

2002

Full Implementation

Implementation proceeded smoothly. No delays reported. 

2003

Full Implementation

Implementation proceeded smoothly. No delays reported. 

2004

Full Implementation

Implementation proceeded smoothly. No delays reported. 

2005

Full Implementation

Implementation proceeded smoothly. No delays reported. 

2006

Full Implementation

Implementation proceeded smoothly. No delays reported. 

2007

Full Implementation

Implementation proceeded smoothly. No delays reported. 

Verification/Monitoring Mechanism

CEASEFIRE AGREEMENT IN GUINEA-BISSAU

Article 1

(d) Deployment of observation and interposition forces, to be defined through negotiations;

Implementation History
1998

No Implementation

The ceasefire agreement, which was reaffirmed in the final Abuja Peace Accord, provided for the deployment of military interposition or observation forces. The provision for UN involvement was negotiated in an additional protocol to the Abuja Accord of 1 November 1998. According to the additional protocol, the Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS) mission would be sent to the United Nations. As stipulated in the additional protocol, the mission met with the Secretary-General and the Security Council on 11 December 1998, where the United Nations was asked for their assistance in working towards the return of peace and stability in Guinea-Bissau. As a consequence, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1216 (1998) on 21 December 1998, which approved the deployment of interposition forces from the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) and asked for periodic reports from ECOMOG through the Secretary-General.1 As such, the initiatives taken by the ECOWAS countries on deploying ECOMOG forces was endorsed by the United Nations Security Council, and the Security Council asked the Secretary-General to propose a possible role for the United Nations, including the establishment of a liaison between ECOMOG and the UN.2

While the UN was very much involved in the peace process, there were no UN observers deployed to verify the implementation of accords in Guinea-Bissau by the end of 1998.

  • 1. “Resolution 1216 (1998),” U.N. Security Council (S/RES/1216 (1998)), December 21, 1998.
  • 2. “Guinea-Bissau; UN Endorses ECOWAS Plan For Guinea-Bissau,” Africa News, December 22, 1998.
1999

Full Implementation

The United Nations Security Council, through its Resolution on 6 April 1999 (S/RES/1233), established a Post-Conflict Peace Building Support Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNOGBIS) under the leadership of a Representative of the Secretary-General.3 As well as working closely with ECOMOG, ECOWAS, and national and international stakeholders, UNOGBIS was meant to play a harmonizing and integrative role in the transitional period to ensure the implementation of the accord and that the post-conflict general elections were held. Before the establishment of UNOGBIS, a mission from the United Nations Department of Political Affairs visited Guinea-Bissau on 11 March 1999 to assess the ground realities and determine the logistical and other requirements for the new UN office.4 The mission was finally deployed on 25 June 1999.5

In a military coup that took place on 7 May 1999, President Joao Bernardo Vieira was removed from his office. This political development made the ECOMOG operation obsolete as the Guinea-Bissau armed forces took over the security role. This development required the United Nations to adjust some of the mandates of its mission in Guinea-Bissau, but it remained focused on the holding of elections.6 The multiparty elections for the legislature and president took place on 28 November 1999.7

  • 3. “Resolution 1233 (1999),” U.N. Security Council (S/RES/1233 (1999)), April 6, 1999.
  • 4. “Report of the Secretary-General Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1216 (1998) Relative to the Situation in Guinea-Bissau,” U.N. Security Council (S/1999/294), March 17, 1999.
  • 5. “UNIOGBIS - United Nations Integrated Peace-Building Office in Guinea-Bissau - Guinea-Bissau at a Glance,” United Nations, accessed January 9, 2013, http://uniogbis.unmissions.org/Default.aspx?tabid=9876&ctl=Details&mid=1....
  • 6. “Report pursuant to Security Council resolution 1233 (1999) relative to the situation in Guinea-Bissau,” U.N. Security Council (S/1999/741), July 1, 1999.
  • 7. “Developments in Guinea-Bissau and activities of the United Nations Peacebuilding Support in that country,” U.N. Security Council (S/1999/1276), December 23, 1999.
2000

Full Implementation

While the observer functions related to the implementation of the Abuja Accord concluded with the holding of elections in November of 1999, UNOGBIS continued its presence in Guinea-Bissau to monitor political developments and help build democratic institutions.8

  • 8. “Developments in Guinea-Bissau and activities of the United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in that country,” U.N. Security Council (S/2000/920), September 29, 2000.
2001

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2002

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2003

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2004

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2005

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2006

Full Implementation

No developments observed this year.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed in 2007. 

In 2009, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1876 on 26 June 2009, which replaced UNOGBIS with the UN Integrated Peace-building Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNIOGBIS).9

  • 9. “Report of the Secretary-General on developments in Guinea-Bissau and on the activities of the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Support Office in that country,” U.N. Security Council (S/2010/550), October 25, 2010.
Regional Peacekeeping Force

ABUJA PEACE AGREEMENT

2. To the total withdrawal from Guinea-Bissau of all foreign troops. This withdrawal shall be done simultaneously with the deployment of an ECOWAS Military Observer Group interposition force, which will take over from the withdrawn forces.

Implementation History
1998

Intermediate Implementation

As fighting continued in Guinea-Bissau, the president called upon the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) to intervene to restore order. In its 18th security meeting in Abidjan held on 3 July 1999, the ECOWAS foreign ministers made a decision to send the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) force if dialogue between the leaders from the military and the government failed.1 In the Abuja Peace Agreement, the deployment of the ECOWAS Military Observer Group interposition force was supposed to happen simultaneously with the withdrawal of foreign troops. In support of President Vieira, Senegal and Guinea had sent troops to Guinea-Bissau.2

After the Abuja Peace Accord, an ECOMOG evaluation team from Nigeria was sent to Guinea-Bissau to take over from Guinea and Senegalese troops, which were sent to support President Vieira.3 On November 19, the Nigerian Parliament approved the deployment of 500 Nigerian troops under the ECOMOG in Guinea-Bissau.4 In December, the United Nations approved the ECOWAS initiative of restoring peace in Guinea-Bissau.5 Between 26 December 1998 and 2 January 1999, there were 110 Togolese troops deployed in Guinea-Bissau as an ECOMOG interposition force.6

  • 1. “Guinea-Bissau; Ministers Endorse ECOMOG Intervention In Guinea-Bissau,” Africa News, July 4, 1998.
  • 2. “Hopes dashed over Guinea-Bissau conflict, as West African summit ends,” Agence France Presse, October 31, 1998.
  • 3. “ECOMOG evaluation team sent to Guinea-Bissau,” Xinhua News Agency, November 14, 1998.
  • 4. “West Africa; Niger Parliament Approves 500 Soldiers For Guinea-Bissau,” Africa News, November 19, 1998.
  • 5. “Guinea-Bissau; UN Endorses ECOWAS Plan For Guinea-Bissau,” Africa News, December 22, 1998.
  • 6. “Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to Security Council resolution 1216 (1998) relative to the situation in Guinea-Bissau,” U.N. Security Council (S/1999/294), March 17, 1999.
1999

Intermediate Implementation

The ECOWAS Military Observer Group interposition force was deployed and by March of 1999, there were 600 ECOMOG interposition force troops in Guinea-Bissau. These ECOMOG troops were sent from Benin, the Gambia, the Niger and Togo7 The ECOMOG troops were expected to stay at least until the holding of post-conflict elections. However, immediately after the military coup that deposed President Vieira, the ECOWAS foreign ministers had an emergency meeting on 25 May. In the meeting, the foreign ministers agreed to withdraw all ECOMOG troops, notwithstanding requests from the national unity government of Guinea-Bissau to continue their mandate.8 The last ECOMOG troops were withdrawn on 7 June 1999. There were 712 ECOMOG troops drawn from Togo, The Gambia, Benin, and Niger before ECOWAS made the decision to withdraw its mission.9 Notwithstanding its initial success in maintaining peace, the withdrawal of ECOWAS troops subsequent to the 7 May military coup made the ECOWAS mandate obsolete.10

  • 7. Ibid.
  • 8. “Report pursuant to Security Council resolution 1233 (1999) relative to the situation in Guinea-Bissau,” U.N. Security Council (S/1999/741), July 1, 1999; “ECOWAS Foreign Ministers Take Decisions on Niger, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone,” BBC Monitoring Africa, May 27, 1999.
  • 9. "Guinea-Bissau," Keesing's Record of Wolrd Events 45 (January 1999):42708.
  • 10. “Report pursuant to Security Council resolution 1233 (1999) relative to the situation in Guinea-Bissau.”
2000

Intermediate Implementation

The regional peacekeeping provision of the accord was partly implemented when the ECOWAS troops were withdrawn in the midst of the transitional period.

2001

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2002

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Intermediate Implementation

No further developments observed.

Withdrawal of Troops

ABUJA PEACE AGREEMENT

2. To the total withdrawal from Guinea-Bissau of all foreign troops. This withdrawal shall be done simultaneously with the deployment of an ECOWAS Military Observer Group interposition force, which will take over from the withdrawn forces;

Implementation History
1998

No Implementation

As fighting continued in Guinea-Bissau, the president called upon the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) to intervene to restore order. Two ECOWAS countries (Senegal and Guinea) sent troops to Guinea-Bissau.1 The Abuja Peace Agreement, however, required the simultaneous withdrawal of foreign troops (from Guinea and Senegal) with the deployment of ECOMOG forces. After the Abuja Peace Accord, an ECOMOG evaluation team from Nigeria was sent to Guinea-Bissau to take over from Guinea and Senegalese troops, which were sent to support President Vieira.2 ECOMOG started its deployment in Guinea-Bissau, but there was no report of the withdrawal of the foreign troops from Senegal and Guinea.

  • 1. “Hopes dashed over Guinea-Bissau conflict, as west African summit ends,” Agence France Presse, October 31, 1998.
  • 2. “ECOMOG evaluation team sent to Guinea-Bissau,” Xinhua News Agency, November 14, 1998.
1999

Full Implementation

Senegalese and Guinean troops were reported on January 14, 1999 to have begun their withdrawal following the arrival of the Togolese contingent of the ECOWAS troops.3

  • 3. ;"Guinea-Bissau," Keesing's Record of World Events 45 (January 1999): 42708; “Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to Security Council resolution 1216 (1998) relative to the situation in Guinea-Bissau,” U.N. Security Council (S/1999/294), March 17, 1999.
2000

Full Implementation

Foreign troops were withdrawn from Guinea-Bissau in January of 1999. 

2001

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2002

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2003

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2004

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2005

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2006

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2007

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

2008

Full Implementation

No further developments observed.

Please always cite: Peace Accords Matrix (Date of retrieval: (02/21/2017),
http://peaceaccords.nd.edu/accord/abuja-peace-agreement,
Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame.