Abidjan Peace Agreement

  • 7%
  • Implementation Score 
    after 2 years
Provisions in this Accord
Cease Fire

ARTICLE 1

The armed conflict between the Government of Sierra Leone and the RUF/SL is hereby ended with immediate effect. Accordingly, the two sides will ensure that a total cessation of hostilities is observed forthwith.

Implementation History
1996

Minimum Implementation

The Commission for the Consolidation of Peace was established after the peace agreement on 30 November 1996. The four-men RUF team and three former ministers and a senior advisor to Kabbah made up the commission for the consolidation of Peace. The RUF delegation to the commission came to Freetown for a talk on December 19, 1996. The commission was expected to begin its work in establishing six “committees which amongst other things will oversee the encampment and disarmament of soldiers.”1

  • 1. "Sierra Leone rebels come to capital for talks," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, December 19, 1996.
1997

Minimum Implementation

A serious breach against the ceasefire took place in January 1997, when the Kamakorjs launched attacks against RUF units in northern Kailahun. This was condemned by the rebels as being “unprovoked.” Some argue that the continued actions of the Kamajors (which also included executions of RUF combatants that tried to resettle in their villages) was one of the main reasons for why the RUF ultimately rejected the 1996 accord and sided with the AFRC in May 1997.2

A civil defense group assisting the military to end the conflict reported on January 6, 1997 that “a huge rebel base has been discovered in the south of Sierra Leone”. According to the deputy chief of the Kamajors defense group over 2,000 rebels armed with light weapons and anti-air craft guns were at the camp in the Moyamba district, 200 kilometers away from Freetown.3

On March 15, 1997, The Economist reported that the country was sliding back to civil war. It was reported that the "demobilisation of the RUF had not begun: rebels should have had started moving into three assembly points but it had not yet been decided where these should be."4

A coup took place on 26 May 1997, when Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers, together with RUF units, toppled Sierra Leone's government and “clashed with Nigerian troops protecting President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah who fled into exile in Guinea.”5 

In hindsite, there is general agreement that the peace process fell apart with fighting in the Moyamba district and with the 1997 coup against the government. "The Army accused Kabbah of putting more resources into the civil defense forces (primarily the Kamajors) than into the Army (SLA). The SLA and rebels aligned in opposition to Kabbah, the SLPP (Kabbah’s political party), and the CDFs.”6

  • 2. David Keen, Conflict and Collusion in Sierra Leone (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005),193-197.
  • 3. "Rebel base discovered in Sierra Leone," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, January 6, 1997.
  • 4. "Sierra Leone. Sliding back to war?," The Economist, March 15, 1997, 3.
  • 5. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London) May 26, 1997,13.
  • 6. Kendra Dupuy and Helga Malmin Binningsbø, "Power-sharing and Peace-building in Sierra Leone: Power-sharing Agreements, Negotiations and Peace Processes," CSCW Policy Brief 7 (Oslo: PRIO/CSCW, 2007).
1998

No Implementation

RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.7

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 7. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Electoral/Political Party Reform

ARTICLE 13

The Parties agree that immediately following the signing of the present Peace Agreement, the RUF/SL shall commence to function as a political movement with the rights, privileges and duties provided by law; and that within thirty days, following that, the necessary conditions shall be created to enable the RUF/SL to register as a political movement according to law.

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

The accord called for the legalization of RUF as a political party and the formation of a National Electoral Commission to reform the country's electoral processes. There were no reports of these developments beginning in 1996 as fighting quickly renewed and demobilization was delayed. 

1997

No Implementation

As of March 15, 1997, demobilization of the RUF had not begun.1 On May 26, 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers joined with RUF and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.2

  • 1. "Sierra Leone. Sliding back to war?," The Economist, March 15, 1997, 43.
  • 2. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.3

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 3. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Civil Administration Reform

ARTICLE 16

The Parties agree that the standards of accountability, integrity and probity in the public services of Sierra Leone shall be raised. To that end, immediate steps shall be taken to establish the office of Ombudsman to promote the implementation of a professional code of ethics, and the integrity and patriotism of all public servants. It shall also seek to eradicate all forms of corruption.

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

No reforms regarding training for public sector employees took place this year. Nor were any offices established for that purpose.1 

  • 1. "Sierra Leone rebels come to capital for talks," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, December 19, 1996.
1997

No Implementation

No reforms regarding training for public sector employees took place from January to May. On May 26, 1997, RUF forces and AFRC forces toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into exile in Guinea.2 

  • 2. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war this year.3

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 3. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Truth or Reconciliation Mechanism

ARTICLE 15

The mandate and membership of the existing National Unity and Reconciliation Commission shall be expanded in consultation with the Commission for the Consolidation of Peace to enable it to undertake a sustained and effective campaign of civic education aimed at enhancing national unity and reconciliation, taking into account the imperative need to heal the wounds of the conflict.

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

The peace agreement called for the establishment of two main commissions: (a) the National Unity and Reconciliation Commission, and (2) the Joint Commission for the Consolidation of Peace. The Joint Commission for the Consolidation of Peace was set up immediately after the peace agreement in December of 1996 but the National Unity and Reconciliation Commission was not established.1

  • 1. "Sierra Leone rebels come to capital for talks," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, December 19, 1996.
1997

No Implementation

In 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and soldiers under his command formed an alliance with RUF rebels and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.2

  • 2. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.3

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 3. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Dispute Resolution Committee

ARTICLE 3

A national body to be known as the Commission for the Consolidation of Peace shall be established within two weeks of the signing of this Agreement. The Commission shall be a verification mechanism responsible for supervising and monitoring the implementation of and compliance with all the provisions contained in this Peace Agreement.

Implementation History
1996

Minimum Implementation

The accord called for the establishment of a Commission for the Consolidation of Peace to verify implementation and make policy recommendations which were to be binding. The Commission for the Consolidation of Peace was reported as having been established in December of 1996. The commission was expected to begin its work in establishing six “committees which amongst other things will oversee the encampment and disarmament of soldiers.” A four-men RUF team and three former ministers and a senior advisor to Kabbah made up the commission. The RUF delegation to the commission came to Freetown for talks at least once on 19 December 1996.1 

Beyond that initial meeting, the committee never became operational and did not meet again. Sources describe the event as a ploy by RUF to buy some time while they consolidated their military forces for a final push.2 

  • 1. "Sierra Leone rebels come to capital for talks," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, December 19, 1996.
  • 2. Kendra Dupuy and Helga Malmin Binningsbø, "Power-sharing and Peace-building in Sierra Leone: Power-sharing Agreements, Negotiations and Peace Processes," CSCW Policy Brief 7 (Oslo: PRIO/CSCW, 2007).
1997

Minimum Implementation

In 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers formed an alliance with RUF troops and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.3

  • 3. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997,13.
1998

Minimum Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.4

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 4. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Judiciary Reform

ARTICLE 24

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

No judicial reforms were undertaken in 1996. The Judicial and Legal Service Commission was not established.1 

  • 1. "Sierra Leone rebels come to capital for talks," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, December 19, 1996.
1997

No Implementation

In 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers formed an alliance with RUF troops and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.2

  • 2. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997,13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.3

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 3. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Military Reform

ARTICLE 9

The Commission shall, as a priority, make recommendations on the restructuring and reorientation of the military as well as its leadership. In this context, members of the RUF/SL who may wish to be part of the country's military can become part of the new unified armed forces within a framework to be discussed and agreed upon by the Commission.

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

The accord called for the integration of RUF forces into the national army and a downsizing of the national military. There were no integration programs or military reforms undertaken in 1996. The joint committee responsible for this program was not established and demobilization stalled.1 

  • 1. "Sierra Leone rebels come to capital for talks," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, December 19, 1996.
1997

No Implementation

In 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers formed an alliance with RUF troops and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.2

  • 2. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.3

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 3. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Police Reform

ARTICLE 25

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

The accord called for the professionalization of the police force with reforms and programs aimed at increasing respect for human rights and reducing corruption. No such programs were undertaken in 1996. The Police Council was not established.1 

  • 1. "Sierra Leone rebels come to capital for talks," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, December 19, 1996.
1997

No Implementation

In 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers formed an alliance with RUF troops and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.2

  • 2. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.3

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 3.  "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Demobilization

ARTICLE 5

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

The parties failed to establish the Demobilization and Resettlement Committee. The Assembly Zones were not set up and no troop movements took place this year.1 

  • 1. "Sierra Leone rebels come to capital for talks," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, December 19, 1996.
1997

No Implementation

The Assembly Zones were not established and no troop movements took place prior to May 1996. In May of 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers formed an alliance with RUF troops and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.2

  • 2. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.3

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 3.  "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Disarmament

ARTICLE 5

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

No disarmament programs were undertaken in 1996.1 Sankoh (the leader of RUF) attempted to purchase arms in Nigeria following the peace accord.2 

  • 1. "Sierra Leone rebels come to capital for talks," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, December 19, 1996.
  • 2. Kendra Dupuy and Helga Malmin Binningsbø, "Power-sharing and Peace-building in Sierra Leone: Power-sharing Agreements, Negotiations and Peace Processes," CSCW Policy Brief 7 (Oslo: PRIO/CSCW, 2007).
1997

No Implementation

In 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers formed an alliance with RUF troops and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.3

  • 3. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.4

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 4. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Reintegration

ARTICLE 6

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

The parties failed to establish both the Demobilization and Resettlement Committee and the Assembly Zones. No troop movements took place this year.1

  • 1. "Sierra Leone rebels come to capital for talks," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, December 19, 1996.
1997

No Implementation

The parties failed to initiate any aspect of the DDR program prior to May 1997. In May 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers formed an alliance with RUF troops and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.2

  • 2. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.3

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 3.  "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Prisoner Release

ARTICLE 19

To foster national reconciliation and ensure the full and unrestricted participation of the RUF/SL in the political process, the RUF/SL shall enjoy:

(i) Freedom of the press and access to the media in order that they may be heard and informed.

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

No prisoner swaps took place following the accord.1 

  • 1. "Sierra Leone rebels come to capital for talks," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, December 19, 1996.
1997

No Implementation

In January 1997, two months after the peace accord was signed, the SLPP government and Kamajors launched attacks against RUF units in northern Kailahun. This was condemned by the rebels as being unprovoked. Keen argues that the continued actions of the Kamajors (which also included executions of RUF combatants that attempted to resettle in their home villages) was one of the main reasons for why the RUF rejected the 1996 accord and sided with the AFRC in May 1997.2 In May of 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers formed an alliance with RUF troops and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.3

  • 2. Keen, David 2005. Conflict & Collusion in Sierra Leone. Palgrave Macmillan, pp.193-197.
  • 3. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.4

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 4.  "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Paramilitary Groups

ARTICLE 12

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

Executive Outcomes was a private military firm founded in South Africa by Eeben Barlow, the former Lieutenant-Colonel of the South African Defence Force. There were no reports of Executive Outcomes soldiers leaving Sierra Leone in 1996. 

1997

Full Implementation

The South African mercenaries belonging to Executive Outcomes were contracted by the government to protect the diamond mines from rebels and thieves. The exact number of mercenaries in the country is not clear, but according to one report, “they numbered 250 a little over a year ago when Freetown was within reach of Revolutionary United Front guns.” The BBC reported that troops from Executive Outcomes left Sierra Leone in late January or early February 1997.1

  • 1. "Executive Outcomes leaves Sierra Leone," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, February 5, 1997.
1998

Full Implementation

No further developments regarding the paramilitary firm known as Executive Outcomes. 

RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.2

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 2.  "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Human Rights

ARTICLE 19

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

An independent National Commission on Human Rights was not established. None of the above mentioned reforms related to the improvement of human rights conditions were undertaken in 1996. Amnesty International reports that one week after the peace agreement was signed by the Government of Sierra Leone and the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), more than 150 civilians were killed in the north of the country.1 

  • 1. "Amnesty Says Sierra Leone Violence Persists Despite Peace Pact," Africa News, December 12, 1996.
1997

No Implementation

In January 1997, two months after the peace accord was signed, the SLPP government and Kamajors launched attacks against RUF units in northern Kailahun in violation of the accord. Keen argues that the continued actions of the Kamajors (which also included executions of RUF combatants that attempted to resettle in their home villages) was one of the main reasons for why the RUF rejected the 1996 accord and sided with the AFRC in May 1997.2 In April of 1997, RUF members were engaged in hostage taking.3

In May of 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers formed an alliance with RUF troops and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.4

  • 2. David Keen, Conflict and Collusion in Sierra Leone (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005),193-197.
  • 3. "Sierra Leone; Amnesty Calls on RUF to Release Hostages," Africa News, April 30, 1997.
  • 4. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.5

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 5. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Amnesty

ARTICLE 14

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

No legislative measures were taken with respect to amnesty.

1997

No Implementation

In January 1997, two months after the peace accord was signed, the SLPP government and Kamajors launched attacks against RUF units in northern Kailahun. This was condemned by the rebels as being unprovoked. Keen argues that the continued actions of the Kamajors (which also included executions of RUF combatants that attempted to resettle in their home villages) was one of the main reasons for why the RUF rejected the 1996 accord and sided with the AFRC in May 1997.1 In May of 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers formed an alliance with RUF troops and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.2

  • 1. David Keen, Conflict and Collusion in Sierra Leone (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005),193-197.
  • 2. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.3

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 3. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Education Reform

ARTICLE 26

c. Improved educational services to enable all children of primary and junior-secondary school age to receive free and compulsory schooling as well as provide the opportunity for the youth and all other Sierra Leoneans to receive affordable quality education

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

No educational reforms were undertaken following the accord as the peace process quickly broke down.

1997

No Implementation

In January 1997, two months after the peace accord was signed, the SLPP government and Kamajors launched attacks against RUF units in northern Kailahun. Keen argues that the continued actions of the Kamajors (which also included executions of RUF combatants that attempted to resettle in their home villages) was one of the main reasons for why the RUF rejected the 1996 accord and sided with the AFRC in May 1997.1 In May of 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers formed an alliance with RUF troops and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.2

  • 1. David Keen, Conflict and Collusion in Sierra Leone (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005),193-197.
  • 2. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.3

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 3. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Media Reform

ARTICLE 19

To foster national reconciliation and ensure the full and unrestricted participation of the RUF/SL in the political process, the RUF/SL shall enjoy:
(i) Freedom of the press and access to the media in order that they may be heard and informed.

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

No media reforms were undertaken following the accord. Despite numerous promises to protect free speech and freedom of the press made in 1996, "the government of President Kabbah has shown intolerance toward criticism of its policies or officials by banning newspapers that publish uncomplimentary articles and detaining journalists. The frequent use of criminal libel and sedition charges against independent journalists has encouraged self-censorship, and the imposition of heavy fines is financially crippling the private press." Torchlight, a new independent newspaper, was shutdown and officially banned on the day of its first issue which contained a story critical of the President. 1 

1997

No Implementation

In 1997, an increasing number of journalists were arrested for critical coverage of the President and other officials. According to the Committee to Project Journalists, 1997 was characterized by a serious crackdown on the media:

"The proposed press law amendments include provisions requiring editors to have 10 years' prior experience in journalism, five of them in an editorial capacity, and all journalists to hold a degree in their field. Members of the press would be subject to police certification. And a proposed measure directed at controlling publications that the government regards as radical would require newspapers that began circulation after February 1996 to re-register. On May 6, the parliament passed the first section of these amendments to the press law, known as the Newspaper Act of 1997, by an overwhelming majority. The Media Practitioner's Act of 1997 passed unanimously on May 12. Both bills will now go to Kabbah to be signed into law."2

1998

No Implementation

At least 20 reporters were imprisoned in 1998 for critical coverage of the government's handling of the war.3

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.4

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

Economic and Social Development

ARTICLE 22

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

None of the socio-economic reform programs were initiated as the peace process quickly broke down. 

1997

No Implementation

In January 1997, two months after the peace accord was signed, the SLPP government and Kamajors launched attacks against RUF units in northern Kailahun.1 In May of 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers formed an alliance with RUF troops and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.2

  • 1. David Keen, Conflict and Collusion in Sierra Leone (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005),193-197.
  • 2. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.3

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 3. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Donor Support

ARTICLE 17

The Parties shall approach the international community with a view to mobilizing resources which will be used to establish a trust fund to enable the RUF/SL to transform itself into a political party.

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

Donor support could not be pursued as the peace process quickly broke down into renewed violence and the demobilization program was disregarded. No donor conferences were held. 

1997

No Implementation

In January 1997, two months after the peace accord was signed, the SLPP government and Kamajors launched attacks against RUF units in northern Kailahun.1 In May of 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers formed an alliance with RUF troops and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.2

  • 1. David Keen, Conflict and Collusion in Sierra Leone (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005),193-197.
  • 2. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.3

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 3. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Detailed Implementation Timeline

ARTICLE 6

The Parties commit themselves to a well-planned national effort on encampment, disarmament, demobilization and resettlement linked to national development objectives. To that end, a Demobilization and Resettlement Committee shall be established within a month of the signing of the present Peace Agreement.

ARTICLE 7

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

None of the specific provisions mentioned in the timeline were implemented within the specified timeframe this year. The DDR process was abandoned before it began. The Demobilization and Resettlement Committee was never operational and no Assembly Zones were established. The mercenaries from the defense firm Executive Outcomes left the country on their own in February of 1997 rather than being confined to barracks under the supervision of the Joint Monitoring Group and the Neutral Monitoring Group as stipulated in the accord. The Neutral Monitoring Group (NMG) was not created. The RUF/SL were not transformed into a political party and a National Electoral Commission was never established. 

 

1997

No Implementation

None of the specific provisions mentioned in the timeline were implemented as the peace process quickly broke down into renewed violence. In January 1997, two months after the peace accord was signed, the SLPP government and Kamajors launched attacks against RUF units in northern Kailahun.1 In May of 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers formed an alliance with RUF troops and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.2

  • 1. David Keen, Conflict and Collusion in Sierra Leone (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005),193-197.
  • 2. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.3

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 3. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Natural Resource Management

ARTICLE 26

Protect the environment and regulate the exploitation of natural resources in the interest of the people, as well as prohibit monopolies;

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

The peace process quickly broke down. No reports could be found of government reform efforts or legislation aimed at reforming Natural Resource Management in 1996.  

1997

No Implementation

No reports could be found of government reform efforts or legislation aimed at reforming Natural Resource Management in 1997. In January 1997, two months after the peace accord was signed, the SLPP government and Kamajors launched attacks against RUF units in northern Kailahun. The RUF rejected the 1996 accord and sided with the AFRC in May 1997.1 In May of 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers formed an alliance with RUF troops and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.2

  • 1. David Keen, Conflict and Collusion in Sierra Leone (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005),193-197.
  • 2. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.3

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 3. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Review of Agreement

ARTICLE 2 

The Government and the RUF/SL undertake that no effort shall be spared to effect the scrupulous respect and implementation of the provisions contained in this Peace Agreement to ensure that the establishment and consolidation of a just peace becomes a priority in Sierra Leone. 

ARTICLE 3

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

The national body to be called the Commission for the Consolidation of Peace was not established as the peace process quickly broke down. 

1997

No Implementation

In January 1997, two months after the peace accord was signed, the SLPP government and Kamajors launched attacks against RUF units in northern Kailahun. The RUF rejected the 1996 accord and sided with the AFRC in May 1997.1 In May of 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers formed an alliance with RUF troops and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.2

  • 1. David Keen, Conflict and Collusion in Sierra Leone (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005),193-197.
  • 2. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.3

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 3. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Verification/Monitoring Mechanism

ARTICLE 8

The Parties shall request the international community to help supervise and monitor the encampment, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes. The Joint Monitoring Group shall have observers at any of these processes.

ARTICLE 11

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

The Neutral Monitoring Group (NMG) composed of international actors was not established in 1996. 

1997

No Implementation

The Neutral Monitoring Group (NMG) composed of international actors was not established in 1997. In January 1997, two months after the peace accord was signed, the SLPP government and Kamajors launched attacks against RUF units in northern Kailahun. The RUF rejected the 1996 accord and sided with the AFRC in May 1997.1 In May of 1997, Major Johnny Paul Koroma and his soldiers formed an alliance with RUF troops and toppled Sierra Leone's government. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fled into Guinea.2

  • 1. David Keen, Conflict and Collusion in Sierra Leone (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005),193-197.
  • 2. "Sierra Leone coup leader claims power," The Independent (London), May 26, 1997, 13.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.3

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 3. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.
Withdrawal of Troops

ARTICLE 12

...Government shall use all its endeavors, consistent with its treaty obligations, to repatriate other foreign troops no later than three months after the deployment of the Neutral Monitoring Group or six months after the signing of the Peace Agreement, whichever is earlier.

Implementation History
1996

No Implementation

According to the The Courier Mail (Queensland), foreign troops were supporting the Sierra Leone army against the RUF and those forces were not withdrawn immediately after the signing of the peace agreement.1

  • 1. "Sierra Leone rocked by coup," Courier Mail (Queensland, Australia), May 27, 1997.
1997

No Implementation

After the military coup in May 1997, all foreign troops supporting the army were ordered back to their respective local bases.2 The leader of the military coup (Major Johnny Paul Koroma) was involved in negotiations on May 31, 1997 with senior representatives of other West African states in an effort to prevent a conflict between the foreign troops inside Sierra Leone and his Units.3 

Together with Ivory Coast, Guinea and Ghana, Nigeria began an effort in July 1997 to restore President Kabbah to power.  

  • 2. "Sierra Leone rocked by coup," Courier Mail.
  • 3. "Sierra Leone coup leader in talks to avert military intervention," Deutsche Presse-Agentur, May 31, 1997.
1998

No Implementation

In 1998, the former government ousted the RUF/AFRC government. RUF and the former government returned to full scale civil war in 1998.4

Coding for this case ceased on December 31, 1998.

  • 4. "Uppsala Conflict Data Program," Uppsala University Department of Peace and Conflict Research, accessed June 3, 2011, www.ucdp.uu.se/database.

Please always cite: Peace Accords Matrix (Date of retrieval: (12/13/2017),
http://peaceaccords.nd.edu/accord/abidjan-peace-agreement,
Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame.